French Togoland became Togo in 1960. Gen. Gnassingbe EYADEMA, installed as military ruler in 1967, ruled Togo with a heavy hand for almost four decades. Despite the facade of multi-party elections instituted in the early 1990s, the government was largely dominated by President EYADEMA, whose Rally of the Togolese People (RPT) party has been in power almost continually since 1967 and its successor, the Union for the Republic, maintains a majority of seats in today's legislature. Upon EYADEMA's death in February 2005, the military installed the president's son, Faure GNASSINGBE, and then engineered his formal election two months later. Democratic gains since then allowed Togo to hold its first relatively free and fair legislative elections in October 2007. After years of political unrest and condemnation from international organizations for human rights abuses, Togo is finally being re-welcomed into the international community.



Western Africa, bordering the Bight of Benin, between Benin and Ghana

Geographic coordinates

8 00 N, 1 10 E

Map references



total: 56,785 sq km
land: 54,385 sq km
water: 2,400 sq km

Area - comparative

slightly smaller than West Virginia

Land boundaries

total: 1,880 km
border countries (3): Benin 651 km, Burkina Faso 131 km, Ghana 1,098 km


56 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 30 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm


tropical; hot, humid in south; semiarid in north


gently rolling savanna in north; central hills; southern plateau; low coastal plain with extensive lagoons and marshes


mean elevation: 236 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mont Agou 986 m

Natural resources

phosphates, limestone, marble, arable land

Land use

agricultural land: 67.4%
arable land 45.2%; permanent crops 3.8%; permanent pasture 18.4%
forest: 4.9%
other: 27.7% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land

70 sq km (2012)

Natural hazards

hot, dry harmattan wind can reduce visibility in north during winter; periodic droughts

Environment - current issues

deforestation attributable to slash-and-burn agriculture and the use of wood for fuel; water pollution presents health hazards and hinders the fishing industry; air pollution increasing in urban areas

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note

the country's length allows it to stretch through six distinct geographic regions; climate varies from tropical to savanna

People and Society

Population growth rate

2.66% (2016 est.)


note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2016 est.)


noun: Togolese (singular and plural)
adjective: Togolese

Ethnic groups

African (37 tribes; largest and most important are Ewe, Mina, and Kabre) 99%, European and Syrian-Lebanese less than 1%


French (official, the language of commerce), Ewe and Mina (the two major African languages in the south), Kabye (sometimes spelled Kabiye) and Dagomba (the two major African languages in the north)


Christian 29%, Muslim 20%, indigenous beliefs 51%

Demographic profile

Togo’s population is estimated to have grown to four times its size between 1960 and 2010. With nearly 60% of its populace under the age of 25 and a high annual growth rate attributed largely to high fertility, Togo’s population is likely to continue to expand for the foreseeable future. Reducing fertility, boosting job creation, and improving education will be essential to reducing the country’s high poverty rate. In 2008, Togo eliminated primary school enrollment fees, leading to higher enrollment but increased pressure on limited classroom space, teachers, and materials. Togo has a good chance of achieving universal primary education, but educational quality, the underrepresentation of girls, and the low rate of enrollment in secondary and tertiary schools remain concerns.
Togo is both a country of emigration and asylum. In the early 1990s, southern Togo suffered from the economic decline of the phosphate sector and ethnic and political repression at the hands of dictator Gnassingbe EYADEMA and his northern, Kabye-dominated administration. The turmoil led 300,000 to 350,000 predominantly southern Togolese to flee to Benin and Ghana, with most not returning home until relative stability was restored in 1997. In 2005, another outflow of 40,000 Togolese to Benin and Ghana occurred when violence broke out between the opposition and security forces over the disputed election of EYADEMA’s son Faure GNASSINGBE to the presidency. About half of the refugees reluctantly returned home in 2006, many still fearing for their safety. Despite ethnic tensions and periods of political unrest, Togo in 2016 was home to more than 18,000 refugees from Ghana.

Age structure

0-14 years: 40.44% (male 1,573,363/female 1,563,267)
15-24 years: 19.34% (male 749,002/female 751,571)
25-54 years: 32.58% (male 1,255,524/female 1,271,804)
55-64 years: 4.27% (male 156,249/female 175,089)
65 years and over: 3.37% (male 112,845/female 148,223) (2016 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 81.8%
youth dependency ratio: 76.8%
elderly dependency ratio: 5%
potential support ratio: 19.9% (2015 est.)

Median age

total: 19.7 years
male: 19.4 years
female: 20 years (2016 est.)

Birth rate

33.7 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)

Death rate

7.1 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)

Net migration rate

0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)


urban population: 40% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 3.83% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population

LOME (capital) 956,000 (2015)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.89 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2016 est.)

Child labor - children ages 5-14

total number: 774,801
percentage: 47% (2010 est.)

Maternal mortality rate

368 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)

Infant mortality rate

total: 43.7 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 50.1 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 37 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 65 years
male: 62.3 years
female: 67.7 years (2016 est.)

Total fertility rate

4.43 children born/woman (2016 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

15.2% (2010)

Health expenditures

5.2% of GDP (2014)

Physicians density

0.05 physicians/1,000 population (2008)

Hospital bed density

0.7 beds/1,000 population (2011)

Drinking water source

urban: 91.4% of population
rural: 44.2% of population
total: 63.1% of population
urban: 8.6% of population
rural: 55.8% of population
total: 36.9% of population (2015 est.)

Sanitation facility access

urban: 24.7% of population
rural: 2.9% of population
total: 11.6% of population
urban: 75.3% of population
rural: 97.1% of population
total: 88.4% of population (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate

2.4% (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS

106,300 (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths

5,100 (2015 est.)

Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and yellow fever
respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

6.4% (2014)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

16.2% (2014)

Education expenditures

5.3% of GDP (2015)


definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 66.5%
male: 78.3%
female: 55.3% (2015 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 12 years
male: NA
female: NA (2011)

Mother's mean age at first birth

note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2013/14 est.)


Country name

conventional long form: Togolese Republic
conventional short form: Togo
local long form: Republique Togolaise
local short form: none
former: French Togoland
etymology: derived from the Ewe words "to" (water) and "go" (shore) to give the sense of "by the water"; originally, this designation applied to the town of Togo (now Togoville) on the northern shore of Lake Togo, but the name was eventually extended to the entire nation

Government type

presidential republic


name: Lome
geographic coordinates: 6 07 N, 1 13 E
time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions

5 regions (regions, singular - region); Centrale, Kara, Maritime, Plateaux, Savanes


27 April 1960 (from French-administered UN trusteeship)

National holiday

Independence Day, 27 April (1960)


several previous; latest adopted 27 September 1992, effective 14 October 1992; amended 2002, 2007 (2016)

Legal system

customary law system

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; non-party state to the ICCt


citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Togo
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years


18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Faure GNASSINGBE (since 4 May 2005)
head of government: Prime Minister Komi KLASSOU (since 5 June 2015)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister
elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a 5-year term (no term limits); election last held on 25 April 2015 (next to be held in 2020); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Faure GNASSINGBE reelected president; percent of vote - Faure GNASSINGBE (UNIR) 58.8%, Jean-Pierre FABRE (ANC) 35.2%, Tchaboure GOGUE 4%, other 2%

Legislative branch

description: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (91 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms)
elections: last held on 25 July 2013 (next to be held in 2018)
election results: percent of vote by party - UNIR 46.7%, CST 28.9%, Rainbow Alliance 10.8%, UFC 7.7%, independent 0.8%, other 5.1%; seats by party - UNIR 62, CST 19, Rainbow Alliance 6, UFC 3, independent 1

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court or Cour Supreme (organized into criminal and administrative chambers, each with a chamber president and advisors); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 judges including the court president)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court president appointed by decree of the president of the republic upon the proposal of the Supreme Council of the Magistracy, a 9-member judicial, advisory, and disciplinary body; other judge appointments and judge tenure NA; Constitutional Court judges appointed by the National Assembly; judge tenure NA
subordinate courts: Court of Assizes (sessions court); Appeal Court; tribunals of first instance (divided into civil, commercial, and correctional chambers; Court of State Security; military tribunal

Political parties and leaders

Action Committee for Renewal or CAR [Dodji APEVON]
Democratic Convention of African Peoples or CDPA [Brigitte ADJAMAGBO-JOHNSON]
National Alliance for Change or ANC [Jean-Pierre FABRE]
Pan-African Patriotic Convergence or CPP [Edem KODJO]
Rainbow Alliance (a coalition including CAR and CDPA) [Brigitte ADJAMAGBO-JOHNSON]
Save Togo Collective or CST (a coalition including: ANC and PSR) [Ata Messan Zeus AJAVON
Socialist Pact for Renewal or PSR [Abi TCHESSA]
Union for Democracy and Social Progress or UDPS [Gagou KOKOU]
Union of Forces for Change or UFC [Gilchrist OLYMPIO]
Union for the Republic or UNIR [Faure GNASSINGBE]

Political pressure groups and leaders


International organization participation


Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Yokoudema KADOKALIH (since 26 October 2015)
chancery: 2208 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 234-4212
FAX: [1] (202) 232-3190

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador David R. GILMORE (since December 2015)
embassy: 4332 Blvd. Gnassingbe Eyadema, Cite OUA, Lome
mailing address: B.P. 852, Lome; 2300 Lome Place, Washington, DC 20521-2300
telephone: [228] 2261-5470
FAX: [228] 2261-5501

Flag description

five equal horizontal bands of green (top and bottom) alternating with yellow; a white five-pointed star on a red square is in the upper hoist-side corner; the five horizontal stripes stand for the five different regions of the country; the red square is meant to express the loyalty and patriotism of the people; green symbolizes hope, fertility, and agriculture; yellow represents mineral wealth and faith that hard work and strength will bring prosperity; the star symbolizes life, purity, peace, dignity, and Togo's independence
note: uses the popular Pan-African colors of Ethiopia

National symbol(s)

lion; national colors: green, yellow, red, white

National anthem

name: "Salut a toi, pays de nos aieux" (Hail to Thee, Land of Our Forefathers)
lyrics/music: Alex CASIMIR-DOSSEH
note: adopted 1960, restored 1992; this anthem was replaced by another during one-party rule between 1979 and 1992


Industrial production growth rate

7.1% (2016 est.)

Economy - overview

This small, sub-Saharan economy depends heavily on both commercial and subsistence agriculture, which provides employment for a significant share of the labor force. Some basic foodstuffs must still be imported. Cocoa, coffee, and cotton generate about 40

The government's decade-long effort, supported by the World Bank and the IMF, to implement economic reform measures, encourage foreign investment, and bring revenues in line with expenditures has moved slowly. Togo completed its IMF Extended Credit Facili

Togo’s 2016 economic growth remained steady at 5.3%, largely driven by infusions of foreign aid, infrastructure investment in the port and mineral sectors, and improvements in the business climate. Foreign direct investment inflows have slowed in recent y

GDP (purchasing power parity)

$11.61 billion (2016 est.)
$11.02 billion (2015 est.)
$10.46 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)

$4.52 billion (2015 est.)

GDP - real growth rate

5.3% (2016 est.)
5.4% (2015 est.)
5.4% (2014 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP)

$1,500 (2016 est.)
$1,500 (2015 est.)
$1,500 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars

Gross national saving

18% of GDP (2016 est.)
18.2% of GDP (2015 est.)
13.6% of GDP (2014 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 107%
government consumption: 16.2%
investment in fixed capital: 21%
investment in inventories: 0%
exports of goods and services: 49.3%
imports of goods and services: -93.5% (2016 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 27.5%
industry: 21.3%
services: 51.2% (2016 est.)

Agriculture - products

coffee, cocoa, cotton, yams, cassava (manioc, tapioca), corn, beans, rice, millet, sorghum; livestock; fish


phosphate mining, agricultural processing, cement, handicrafts, textiles, beverages

Labor force

2.595 million (2007 est.)

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 65%
industry: 5%
services: 30% (1998 est.)

Unemployment rate


Population below poverty line

32% (1989 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 3.3%
highest 10%: 27.1% (2006)


revenues: $1.14 billion
expenditures: $1.377 billion (2016 est.)

Taxes and other revenues

25.2% of GDP (2016 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

-5.2% of GDP (2016 est.)

Public debt

63.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
67.3% of GDP (2015 est.)

Fiscal year

calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

2.2% (2016 est.)
1.8% (2015 est.)

Central bank discount rate

2.5% (31 December 2010)
4.25% (31 December 2009)

Commercial bank prime lending rate


Stock of narrow money

$1.315 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.14 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

Stock of broad money

$2.599 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$2.184 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

Stock of domestic credit

$1.977 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.65 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares


Current account balance

-$361 million (2016 est.)
-$295 million (2015 est.)


$1.2 billion (2016 est.)
$1.246 billion (2015 est.)

Exports - commodities

reexports, cotton, phosphates, coffee, cocoa

Exports - partners

India 14.6%, Burkina Faso 11.3%, China 11.3%, Benin 9.6%, Ghana 9%, Lebanon 8.3%, Nigeria 6.1%, Niger 5.9% (2015)


$1.852 billion (2016 est.)
$1.881 billion (2015 est.)

Imports - commodities

machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, petroleum products

Imports - partners

China 22.9%, Belgium 20.3%, Netherlands 11.9%, France 6.6%, India 4.8%, Singapore 4.4% (2015)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$647.6 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$574 million (31 December 2015 est.)

Debt - external

$1.173 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.034 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

Exchange rates

Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar -
605.7 (2016 est.)
591.45 (2015 est.)
591.45 (2014 est.)
494.42 (2013 est.)
510.53 (2012 est.)


Electricity - access

population without electricity: 5,000,000
electrification - total population: 27%
electrification - urban areas: 35%
electrification - rural areas: 21% (2013)

Electricity - production

100 million kWh (2014 est.)

Electricity - consumption

1.1 billion kWh (2014 est.)

Electricity - exports

0 kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - imports

1.1 billion kWh (2014 est.)

Electricity - installed generating capacity

86,000 kW (2014 est.)

Electricity - from fossil fuels

21.7% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from nuclear fuels

0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants

78.3% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from other renewable sources

0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Crude oil - production

0 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Crude oil - exports

0 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Crude oil - imports

0 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Crude oil - proved reserves

0 bbl (1 January 2016 es)

Refined petroleum products - production

0 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - consumption

13,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)

Refined petroleum products - exports

0 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - imports

12,280 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Natural gas - production

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - consumption

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - exports

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - imports

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves

0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy

1.8 million Mt (2013 est.)


Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 52,690
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 1 (July 2015 est.)

Telephones - mobile cellular

total: 4.657 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 62 (July 2015 est.)

Telephone system

general assessment: fair system based on a network of microwave radio relay routes supplemented by open-wire lines and a mobile-cellular system
domestic: microwave radio relay and open-wire lines for conventional system; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity roughly 60 telephones per 100 persons with mobile-cellular use predominating
international: country code - 228; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Symphonie (2015)

Broadcast media

2 state-owned TV stations with multiple transmission sites; 5 private TV stations broadcast locally; cable TV service is available; state-owned radio network with multiple stations; several dozen private radio stations and a few community radio stations; (2007)

Internet country code


Internet users

total: 538,000
percent of population: 7.1% (July 2015 est.)


National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 1
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 8
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 769,904
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 0 mt-km (2015)

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

5V (2016)


8 (2013)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 2 (2013)


total: 568 km
narrow gauge: 568 km 1.000-m gauge (2014)


total: 11,652 km
paved: 2,447 km
unpaved: 9,205 km (2007)


50 km (seasonally navigable by small craft on the Mono River depending on rainfall) (2011)

Merchant marine

total: 61
by type: bulk carrier 6, cargo 38, carrier 3, chemical tanker 5, container 3, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 3, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 1
foreign-owned: 21 (China 1, Lebanon 6, Romania 1, Syria 6, Turkey 4, UAE 1, US 1, Yemen 1) (2010)

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Kpeme, Lome


Military branches

Togolese Armed Forces (Forces Armees Togolaise, FAT): Togolese Army (l'Armee de Terre), Togolese Navy (Forces Naval Togolaises), Togolese Air Force (Force Aerienne Togolaise, TAF), National Gendarmerie (2013)

Military service age and obligation

18 years of age for compulsory and voluntary military service; 2-year service obligation (2012)

Military expenditures

NA% (2012)
1.6% of GDP (2011)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

in 2001, Benin claimed Togo moved boundary monuments - joint commission continues to resurvey the boundary; talks continue between Benin and Togo on funding the Adjrala hydroelectric dam on the Mona River

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 18,476 (Ghana) (2015)

Illicit drugs

transit hub for Nigerian heroin and cocaine traffickers; money laundering not a significant problem