The Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes was formed in 1918; its name was changed to Yugoslavia in 1929. Communist Partisans resisted the Axis occupation and division of Yugoslavia from 1941 to 1945 and fought nationalist opponents and collaborators as well. The military and political movement headed by Josip Broz "TITO" (Partisans) took full control of Yugoslavia when their domestic rivals and the occupiers were defeated in 1945. Although communists, TITO and his successors (Tito died in 1980) managed to steer their own path between the Warsaw Pact nations and the West for the next four and a half decades. In 1989, Slobodan MILOSEVIC became president of the Republic of Serbia and his ultranationalist calls for Serbian domination led to the violent breakup of Yugoslavia along ethnic lines. In 1991, Croatia, Slovenia, and Macedonia declared independence, followed by Bosnia in 1992. The remaining republics of Serbia and Montenegro declared a new Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY) in April 1992 and under MILOSEVIC's leadership, Serbia led various military campaigns to unite ethnic Serbs in neighboring republics into a "Greater Serbia." These actions ultimately failed and, after international intervention, led to the signing of the Dayton Peace Accords in 1995.
MILOSEVIC retained control over Serbia and eventually became president of the FRY in 1997. In 1998, an ethnic Albanian insurgency in the formerly autonomous Serbian province of Kosovo provoked a Serbian counterinsurgency campaign that resulted in massacres and massive expulsions of ethnic Albanians living in Kosovo. The MILOSEVIC government's rejection of a proposed international settlement led to NATO's bombing of Serbia in the spring of 1999. Serbian military and police forces withdrew from Kosovo in June 1999, and the UN Security Council authorized an interim UN administration and a NATO-led security force in Kosovo. FRY elections in late 2000 led to the ouster of MILOSEVIC and the installation of democratic government. In 2003, the FRY became the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro, a loose federation of the two republics. Widespread violence predominantly targeting ethnic Serbs in Kosovo in March 2004 led to more intense calls to address Kosovo's status, and the UN began facilitating status talks in 2006. In June 2006, Montenegro seceded from the federation and declared itself an independent nation. Serbia subsequently gave notice that it was the successor state to the union of Serbia and Montenegro.
In February 2008, after nearly two years of inconclusive negotiations, Kosovo declared itself independent of Serbia - an action Serbia refuses to recognize. At Serbia's request, the UN General Assembly (UNGA) in October 2008 sought an advisory opinion from the International Court of Justice (ICJ) on whether Kosovo's unilateral declaration of independence was in accordance with international law. In a ruling considered unfavorable to Serbia, the ICJ issued an advisory opinion in July 2010 stating that international law did not prohibit declarations of independence. In late 2010, Serbia agreed to an EU-drafted UNGA Resolution acknowledging the ICJ's decision and calling for a new round of talks between Serbia and Kosovo, this time on practical issues rather than Kosovo's status. Serbia and Kosovo signed the first agreement of principles governing the normalization of relations between the two countries in April 2013 and are in the process of implementing its provisions. Prime Minister Aleksandar VUCIC, has promoted an ambitious goal of Serbia joining the EU by 2020. Under his leadership, in January 2014 Serbia opened formal negotiations for accession.



Southeastern Europe, between Macedonia and Hungary

Geographic coordinates

44 00 N, 21 00 E

Map references



total: 77,474 sq km
land: 77,474 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative

slightly smaller than South Carolina

Land boundaries

total: 2,322 km
border countries (8): Bosnia and Herzegovina 345 km, Bulgaria 344 km, Croatia 314 km, Hungary 164 km, Kosovo 366 km, Macedonia 101 km, Montenegro 157 km, Romania 531 km


0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims

none (landlocked)


in the north, continental climate (cold winters and hot, humid summers with well-distributed rainfall); in other parts, continental and Mediterranean climate (relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall and hot, dry summers and autumns)


extremely varied; to the north, rich fertile plains; to the east, limestone ranges and basins; to the southeast, ancient mountains and hills


mean elevation: 442 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Danube and Timok Rivers 35 m
highest point: Midzor 2,169 m

Natural resources

oil, gas, coal, iron ore, copper, zinc, antimony, chromite, gold, silver, magnesium, pyrite, limestone, marble, salt, arable land

Land use

agricultural land: 57.9%
arable land 37.7%; permanent crops 3.4%; permanent pasture 16.8%
forest: 31.6%
other: 10.5% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land

950 sq km (2012)

Natural hazards

destructive earthquakes

Environment - current issues

air pollution around Belgrade and other industrial cities; water pollution from industrial wastes dumped into the Sava which flows into the Danube

Environment - international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note

controls one of the major land routes from Western Europe to Turkey and the Near East

People and Society


noun: Serb(s)
adjective: Serbian


note: does not include the population of Kosovo (July 2016 est.)

Ethnic groups

Serb 83.3%, Hungarian 3.5%, Romany 2.1%, Bosniak 2%, other 5.7%, undeclared or unknown 3.4% (2011 est.)


Serbian (official) 88.1%, Hungarian 3.4%, Bosnian 1.9%, Romany 1.4%, other 3.4%, undeclared or unknown 1.8%
note: Serbian, Hungarian, Slovak, Romanian, Croatian, and Rusyn are official in Vojvodina (2011 est.)


Serbian Orthodox 84.6%, Catholic 5%, Muslim 3.1%, Protestant 1%, atheist 1.1%, other 0.8%, undeclared or unknown 4.5% (2011 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 14.64% (male 539,189/female 506,727)
15-24 years: 11.34% (male 417,692/female 392,379)
25-54 years: 41.41% (male 1,492,799/female 1,465,270)
55-64 years: 14.58% (male 502,172/female 539,349)
65 years and over: 18.03% (male 530,827/female 757,517) (2016 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 50.1%
youth dependency ratio: 24.5%
elderly dependency ratio: 25.6%
potential support ratio: 3.9% (2015 est.)

Median age

total: 42.3 years
male: 40.7 years
female: 44 years (2016 est.)

Population growth rate

-0.46% (2016 est.)

Birth rate

9 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)

Death rate

13.6 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)

Net migration rate

0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)

Population distribution

a fairly even distribution throughout most of the country, with urban areas attracting larger and denser populations


urban population: 55.6% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: -0.34% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population

BELGRADE (capital) 1.182 million (2015)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2016 est.)

Child labor - children ages 5-14

total number: 36,141
percentage: 4% (2005 est.)

Maternal mortality rate

17 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)

Infant mortality rate

total: 5.9 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 6.8 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 5 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 75.5 years
male: 72.6 years
female: 78.5 years (2016 est.)

Total fertility rate

1.43 children born/woman (2016 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

60.8% (2010)

Health expenditures

10.4% of GDP (2014)

Physicians density

2.11 physicians/1,000 population (2009)

Hospital bed density

5.4 beds/1,000 population (2009)

Drinking water source

urban: 99.4% of population
rural: 98.9% of population
total: 99.2% of population
urban: 0.6% of population
rural: 1.1% of population
total: 0.8% of population (2015 est.)

Sanitation facility access

urban: 98.2% of population
rural: 94.2% of population
total: 96.4% of population
urban: 1.8% of population
rural: 5.8% of population
total: 3.6% of population (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate

0.05% (2013 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS

3,000 (2013 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths

100 (2013 est.)

Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: intermediate
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea (2016)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

21.1% (2014)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

1.8% (2014)

Education expenditures

4.2% of GDP (2014)


definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98.1%
male: 99.1%
female: 97.2% (2015 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 14 years
male: 14 years
female: 15 years (2014)

Mother's mean age at first birth

27.8 (2013 est.)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24

total: 49.4%
male: N/A
female: N/A (2013 est.)


Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Serbia
conventional short form: Serbia
local long form: Republika Srbija
local short form: Srbija
former: People's Republic of Serbia, Socialist Republic of Serbia
etymology: the origin of the name in uncertain, but seems to be related to the name of the West Slavic Sorbs who reside in the Lusatian region in present-day eastern Germany; by tradition, the Serbs migrated from that region to the Balkans in about the 6th century A.D.

Government type

parliamentary republic


name: Belgrade (Beograd)
geographic coordinates: 44 50 N, 20 30 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative divisions

119 municipalities (opstine, singular - opstina) and 26 cities (gradovi, singular - grad)
municipalities: Ada*, Aleksandrovac, Aleksinac, Alibunar*, Apatin*, Arandelovac, Arilje, Babusnica, Bac*, Backa Palanka*, Backa Topola*, Backi Petrovac*, Bajina Basta, Batocina, Becej*, Bela Crkva*, Bela Palanka, Beocin*, Blace, Bogatic, Bojnik, Boljevac, Bor, Bosilegrad, Brus, Bujanovac, Cajetina, Cicevac, Coka*, Crna Trava, Cuprija, Despotovac, Dimitrov, Doljevac, Gadzin Han, Golubac, Gornji Milanovac, Indija*, Irig*, Ivanjica, Kanjiza*, Kladovo, Knic, Knjazevac, Koceljeva, Kosjeric, Kovacica*, Kovin*, Krupanj, Kucevo, Kula*, Kursumlija, Lajkovac, Lapovo, Lebane, Ljig, Ljubovija, Lucani, Majdanpek, Mali Idos*, Mali Zvornik, Malo Crnice, Medveda, Merosina, Mionica, Negotin, Nova Crnja*, Nova Varos, Novi Becej*, Novi Knezevac*, Odzaci*, Opovo*, Osecina, Paracin, Pecinci*, Petrovac na Mlavi, Plandiste*, Pozega, Presevo, Priboj, Prijepolje, Prokuplje, Raca, Raska, Razanj, Rekovac, Ruma*, Secanj*, Senta*, Sid*, Sjenica, Smederevska Palanka, Sokobanja, Srbobran*, Sremski Karlovci*, Stara Pazova*, Surdulica, Svilajnac, Svrljig, Temerin*, Titel*, Topola, Trgoviste, Trstenik, Tutin, Ub, Varvarin, Velika Plana, Veliko Gradiste, Vladicin Han, Vladimirci, Vlasotince, Vrbas*, Vrnjacka Banja, Zabalj*, Zabari, Zagubica, Zitiste*, Zitorada
cities: Beograd, Cacak, Jagodina, Kikinda*, Kragujevac, Kraljevo, Krusevac, Leskovac, Loznica, Nis, Novi Pazar, Novi Sad*, Pancevo*, Pirot, Pozarevac, Sabac, Smederevo, Sombor*, Sremska Mitrovica*, Subotica*, Uzice, Valjevo, Vranje, Vrsac, Zajecar, Zrenjanin*
note: the northern 39 municipalities and 6 cities - about 28% of Serbia's area - compose the autonomous province of Vojvodina and are indicated with *


5 June 2006 (from the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro)

National holiday

National Day, 15 February (1835), the day the first constitution of the country was adopted


history: many previous; latest adopted 30 September 2006, approved by referendum 28-29 October 2006, effective 8 November 2006
amendments: proposed by at least one-third of deputies in the National Assembly, by the president of the republic, by the government, or by petition of at least 150,000 voters; passage of proposals and draft amendments each requires at least two-thirds majority vote in the Assembly; amendments to constitutional articles including the preamble, constitutional principles, and human and minority rights and freedoms also require a referendum with passage by simple majority vote (2016)

Legal system

civil law system

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction


citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Serbia
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 3 years


18 years of age, 16 if employed; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Tomislav NIKOLIC (since 11 June 2012)
head of government: Prime Minister Aleksandar VUCIC (since 27 April 2014)
cabinet: Cabinet elected by the National Assembly
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 20 May 2012 (next to be held in 2017); prime minister elected by the National Assembly
election results: Tomislav NIKOLIC elected president; percent of vote in second round - Tomislav NIKOLIC (SNS) 51.2%, Boris TADIC (NDS-Z) 48.8%

Legislative branch

description: unicameral National Assembly or Narodna Skupstina (250 seats; members directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by party list proportional representation vote to serve 4-year terms)
elections: last held on 24 April 2016 (next to be held by April 2020)
election results: percent of vote by party/coalition - Serbia is Winning 48.2%, SPS-JS-ZS-KP 11.0%, SRS 8.1%, For a Just Serbia 6.0%, Enough is Enough 6.0%, Alliance for a Better Serbia 5.0%, Dveri-DSS 5.0%, SVM 1.5%, other 9.2%; seats by party/coalition Serbia is Winning 131, SPS-JS-ZS-KP 29, SRS 22, For a Just Serbia 16, Enough is Enough 16, Alliance for a Better Serbia 13, Dveri-DSS 13, SVM 4, other 6

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court of Cassation (consists of more than 60 judges organized into 3- and 5-member panels for criminal, civil, and administrative cases); Constitutional Court (consists of 15 judges)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court justices proposed by the High Judicial Council (HJC), an 11-member body of which 7 are judges, and elected by the National Assembly; Constitutional Court judges appointed - 5 each by the National Assembly, the president, and the Supreme Court of Cassation; judges of both courts appointed to permanent tenure by the HJC
subordinate courts: appellate courts, higher courts, and municipal and district courts; courts of special jurisdiction include the Administrative Court, Appellate Commercial Court, and 2 levels of misdemeanor courts
note: in 2003, specialized panels on war crimes were established within the Serbian court system; the panels have jurisdiction over alleged violations of the Basic Criminal Code and crimes against humanity, international law, and criminal acts as defined by the Statute of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia

Political parties and leaders

Alliance for a Better Serbia - coalition includes LDP, LSV, SDS
Alliance of Vojvodina Hungarians or SVM [Istvan PASZTOR]
Communist Party or KP [Josip Joska BROZ]
Democratic Alliance of Croats in Vojvodina [Petar KUNTIC]
Democratic Party or DS [Dragan SUTANOVAC]
Democratic Party of Serbia or DSS [Milos Jovanovic]
Dveri [Bosko OBRADOVIC]
Enough of Enough [Sasa RADULOVIC]
For a Just Serbia - coalition includes DS, NS, RS, DSVH, VVS, Together for Sumadija
Greens of Serbia or ZS [Ivan KARIC]
League of Social Democrats of Vojvodina or LSV [Nenad CANAK]
Liberal Democratic Party or LDP [Cedomir JOVANOVIC]
Movement of Socialists or PS [Aleksandar VULIN]
New Serbia or NS [Velimir ILIC]
Party for Democratic Action or PDD [Riza HALIMI]
Party of Democratic Action of the Sandzak or SDA [Sulejman UGLJANIN]
Party of United Pensioners of Serbia or PUPS [Milan KRKOBABIC]
Reformist Party or RS [Aleksandar VISNJIC]
Serbia is Winning - coalition includes SNS, SDPS, PUPS, NS, SPO, PS, PSS, NDSS, SNP
Serbian People's Party or SNP [Nenad POPOVIC]
Serbian Progressive Party or SNS [Aleksandar VUCIC]
Serbian Radical Party or SRS [Vojislav SESELJ]
Serbian Renewal Movement or SPO [Vuk DRASKOVIC]
Social Democratic Party or SDS [Boris TADIC]
Social Democratic Party of Serbia or SDPS [Rasim LJAJIC]
Socialist Party of Serbia or SPS [Ivica DACIC]
Strength of Serbia or PSS [Bogoljub KARIC]
Together for Serbia or ZZS [Dusan PETROVIC]
Together for Sumadija [Veroljub STEVANOVIC]
note: as of April 2016, Serbia had 111 registered political parties and citizens' associations

Political pressure groups and leaders

Independent Association of Journalists of Serbia or NUNS
Journalists Association of Serbia (Udruzenje novinara Srbije) or UNS
Obraz (Orthodox clero-fascist organization)
SNP 1389 (Serbian nationalist movement)
SNP NASI 1389 (Serbian National Movement NASI)
Eastern Alternative (pro-Russian association)

International organization participation


Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Djerdj MATKOVIC (since 23 February 2015)
telephone: [1] (202) 332-0333
FAX: [1] (202) 332-3933
consulate(s) general: Chicago, New York
chancery: 2233 Wisconsin Ave NW

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Kyle SCOTT (since 4 February 2016)
embassy: 92 Bulevar kneza Aleksandra Karadjordjevica, 11040 Belgrade, Serbia
mailing address: 5070 Belgrade Place, Washington, DC 20521-5070
telephone: [381] (11) 706-4000
FAX: [381] (11) 706-4005

Flag description

three equal horizontal stripes of red (top), blue, and white - the Pan-Slav colors representing freedom and revolutionary ideals; charged with the coat of arms of Serbia shifted slightly to the hoist side; the principal field of the coat of arms represents the Serbian state and displays a white two-headed eagle on a red shield; a smaller red shield on the eagle represents the Serbian nation, and is divided into four quarters by a white cross; interpretations vary as to the meaning and origin of the white, curved symbols resembling firesteels or Cyrillic "C's" in each quarter; a royal crown surmounts the coat of arms
note: the Pan-Slav colors were inspired by the 19th-century flag of Russia

National symbol(s)

double-headed eagle; national colors: red, blue, white

National anthem

name: "Boze pravde" (God of Justice)
lyrics/music: Jovan DORDEVIC/Davorin JENKO
note: adopted 1904; song originally written as part of a play in 1872 and has been used as an anthem by the Serbian people throughout the 20th and 21st centuries


Economy - overview

Serbia has a transitional economy largely dominated by market forces, but the state sector remains significant in certain areas and many institutional reforms are needed. The economy relies on manufacturing and exports, driven largely by foreign investmen

After former Federal Yugoslav President MILOSEVIC was ousted in September 2000, the Democratic Opposition of Serbia (DOS) coalition government implemented stabilization measures and embarked on a market reform program. Serbia renewed its membership in the

High unemployment and stagnant household incomes are ongoing political and economic problems. Structural economic reforms needed to ensure the country's long-term prosperity have largely stalled since the onset of the global financial crisis. Growing budg

Major challenges ahead include: high unemployment rates and the need for job creation; high government expenditures for salaries, pensions, healthcare, and unemployment benefits; a growing need for new government borrowing; rising public and private forei

GDP (purchasing power parity)

$101.5 billion (2016 est.)
$98.98 billion (2015 est.)
$98.26 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)

$37.76 billion (2015 est.)

GDP - real growth rate

2.5% (2016 est.)
0.7% (2015 est.)
-1.8% (2014 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP)

$14,200 (2016 est.)
$13,900 (2015 est.)
$13,800 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars

Gross national saving

14% of GDP (2016 est.)
13% of GDP (2015 est.)
11.5% of GDP (2014 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 80.1%
government consumption: 11%
investment in fixed capital: 19.3%
investment in inventories: -3.4%
exports of goods and services: 48.8%
imports of goods and services: -55.8% (2016 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 9.7%
industry: 42.7%
services: 47.6% (2016 est.)

Agriculture - products

wheat, maize, sunflower, sugar beets, grapes/wine, fruits (raspberries, apples, sour cherries), vegetables (tomatoes, peppers, potatoes), beef, pork, and meat products, milk and dairy products


automobiles, base metals, furniture, food processing, machinery, chemicals, sugar, tires, clothes, pharmaceuticals

Industrial production growth rate

5% (2016 est.)

Labor force

2.91 million (2016 est.)

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 21.9%
industry: 15.6%
services: 62.5% (2014 est.)

Unemployment rate

18.9% (2016 est.)
19.3% (2015 est.)

Population below poverty line

9.2% (2013 est.)

Distribution of family income - Gini index

38.7 (2014 est.)
28.2 (2008 est.)


revenues: $16.2 billion
expenditures: $17.08 billion
note: this is the consolidated budget, including both central government and local goverment budgets (2016 est.)

Taxes and other revenues

42.9% of GDP (2016 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

-2.3% of GDP (2016 est.)

Public debt

78.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
77% of GDP (2015 est.)
note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued or owned by government entities other than the treasury (for which the Government of Singapore issued guarantees); the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data i

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

1.1% (2016 est.)
1.5% (2015 est.)

Central bank discount rate

9.5% (18 March 2014)
11.75% (6 February 2013)

Commercial bank prime lending rate

8.6% (31 December 2016 est.)
11% (31 December 2015 est.)

Stock of narrow money

$5.21 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$4.535 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

Stock of broad money

$18.37 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$18.75 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of domestic credit

$20.81 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$19.81 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares

$7.696 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$8.1 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$7.451 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Current account balance

-$1.596 billion (2016 est.)
-$1.751 billion (2015 est.)


$12.85 billion (2016 est.)
$12.6 billion (2015 est.)

Exports - commodities

iron and steel, rubber, clothes, wheat, fruit and vegetables, nonferrous metals, electric appliances, metal products, weapons and ammunition, automobiles

Exports - partners

Italy 16.2%, Germany 12.6%, Bosnia and Herzegovina 8.7%, Romania 5.6%, Russia 5.4% (2015)


$17.37 billion (2016 est.)
$17.03 billion (2015 est.)

Imports - commodities

machinery and transport equipment, fuels and lubricants, manufactured goods, chemicals, food and live animals, raw materials

Imports - partners

Germany 12.4%, Italy 10.6%, Russia 9.6%, China 8.5%, Hungary 4.8%, Poland 4.2% (2015)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$11.64 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$11.35 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

Debt - external

$31.64 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$32.44 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home

$39.34 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
$11.95 billion (2006 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad


Exchange rates

Serbian dinars (RSD) per US dollar -
112.4 (2016 est.)
108.811 (2015 est.)
108.811 (2014 est.)
88.405 (2013 est.)
87.99 (2012 est.)


Electricity - access

electrification - total population: 100% (2016)

Electricity - production

34.4 billion kWh (2014 est.)

Electricity - consumption

26.91 billion kWh (2014 est.)

Electricity - exports

4.806 billion kWh (2014 est.)

Electricity - imports

6.864 billion kWh (2014 est.)

Electricity - installed generating capacity

7.368 million kW (2014 est.)

Electricity - from fossil fuels

59.2% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)

Electricity - from nuclear fuels

0% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants

40.6% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)

Electricity - from other renewable sources

0.2% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)

Crude oil - production

20,330 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Crude oil - exports

0 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Crude oil - imports

31,730 bbl/day (2014 est.)

Crude oil - proved reserves

100 million bbl (1 January 2016 es)

Refined petroleum products - production

61,590 bbl/day (2014 est.)

Refined petroleum products - consumption

74,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)

Refined petroleum products - exports

12,050 bbl/day (2014 est.)

Refined petroleum products - imports

20,080 bbl/day (2014 est.)

Natural gas - production

562.2 million cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - consumption

2.43 billion cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - exports

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - imports

1.889 billion cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves

48.14 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy

46 million Mt (2014 est.)


Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 2,770,462
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 39 (July 2015 est.)

Telephones - mobile cellular

total: 9.156 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 128 (July 2015 est.)

Telephone system

general assessment: replacements of, and upgrades to, telecommunications equipment damaged during the 1999 war resulted in a modern digitalized telecommunications system
domestic: wireless service, available through multiple providers with national coverage, is growing very rapidly; best telecommunications services are centered in urban centers; 3G mobile network launched in 2007
international: country code - 381 (2011)

Internet country code


Internet users

total: 4.688 million
percent of population: 65.3% (July 2015 est.)


National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 2
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 21
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 2,424,886
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 2.748 million mt-km (2015)

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

YU (2016)


26 (2013)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 10
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 16
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 10
under 914 m: 5 (2013)


2 (2012)


total: 3,808 km
standard gauge: 3,808 km 1.435-m gauge (1,196 km electrified) (2014)


total: 44,248 km
paved: 28,000 km
unpaved: 16,248 km (2010)


587 km (primarily on the Danube and Sava rivers) (2009)

Ports and terminals

river port(s): Belgrade (Danube)


Military branches

Serbian Armed Forces (Vojska Srbije, VS): Land Forces (includes Riverine Component, consisting of a river flotilla on the Danube), Air and Air Defense Forces (2016)

Military service age and obligation

18 years of age for voluntary military service; conscription abolished December 2010; reserve obligation to age 60 for men and age 50 for women (2013)

Military expenditures

1.37% of GDP (2016 est.)
1.41% of GDP (2015)
1.49% of GDP (2014)
1.48% of GDP (2013)
1.77% of GDP (2012)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

Serbia with several other states protest the US and other states' recognition of Kosovo's declaration of its status as a sovereign and independent state in February 2008; ethnic Serbian municipalities along Kosovo's northern border challenge final status of Kosovo-Serbia boundary; several thousand NATO-led Kosovo Force peacekeepers under UN Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo authority continue to keep the peace within Kosovo between the ethnic Albanian majority and the Serb minority in Kosovo; Serbia delimited about half of the boundary with Bosnia and Herzegovina, but sections along the Drina River remain in dispute

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 25,996 (Croatia); 9,288 (Bosnia and Herzegovina) (2015)
IDPs: 220,002 (most are Kosovar Serbs, some are Roma, Ashkalis, and Egyptian (RAE); some RAE IDPs are unregistered) (2015)
stateless persons: 2,700 (includes stateless persons in Kosovo) (2015)
note: 670,493 estimated refugee and migrant arrivals (2015 - November 2016)

Illicit drugs

transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin moving to Western Europe on the Balkan route; economy vulnerable to money laundering