Geographically the third smallest state in Europe (after the Holy See and Monaco), San Marino also claims to be the world's oldest republic. According to tradition, it was founded by a Christian stonemason named MARINUS in A.D. 301. San Marino's foreign policy is aligned with that of the EU, although it is not a member; social and political trends in the republic track closely with those of its larger neighbor, Italy.



Southern Europe, an enclave in central Italy

Geographic coordinates

43 46 N, 12 25 E

Map references



total: 61 sq km
land: 61 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative

about one-third the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries

total: 37 km
border countries (1): Italy 37 km


0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims

none (landlocked)


Mediterranean; mild to cool winters; warm, sunny summers


rugged mountains


mean elevation: NA
elevation extremes: lowest point: Torrente Ausa 55 m
highest point: Monte Titano 755 m

Natural resources

building stone

Land use

agricultural land: 16.7%
arable land 16.7%; permanent crops 0%; permanent pasture 0%
forest: 0%
other: 83.3% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land

0 sq km (2012)

Natural hazards


Environment - current issues

air pollution; urbanization decreasing rural farmlands

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution

Geography - note

landlocked; smallest independent state in Europe after the Holy See and Monaco; dominated by the Apennine Mountains

People and Society


33,285 (July 2016 est.)


noun: Sammarinese (singular and plural)
adjective: Sammarinese

Ethnic groups

Sammarinese, Italian




Roman Catholic

Age structure

0-14 years: 15.46% (male 2,736/female 2,410)
15-24 years: 11.34% (male 1,944/female 1,832)
25-54 years: 41.34% (male 6,480/female 7,280)
55-64 years: 12.52% (male 2,075/female 2,092)
65 years and over: 19.34% (male 2,883/female 3,553) (2016 est.)

Median age

total: 44.2 years
male: 43.1 years
female: 45.1 years (2016 est.)

Population growth rate

0.78% (2016 est.)

Birth rate

8.6 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)

Death rate

8.6 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)

Net migration rate

7.7 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)


urban population: 94.2% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 0.62% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population

SAN MARINO 4,000 (2014)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.1 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.14 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.89 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.81 male(s)/female
total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2016 est.)

Infant mortality rate

total: 4.4 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 4.6 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 4.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 83.3 years
male: 80.7 years
female: 86.1 years (2016 est.)

Total fertility rate

1.5 children born/woman (2016 est.)

Health expenditures

6.1% of GDP (2014)

Physicians density

5.1 physicians/1,000 population (2013)

Hospital bed density

3.8 beds/1,000 population (2012)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate


HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS


HIV/AIDS - deaths


Education expenditures

2.4% of GDP (2011)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 15 years
male: 15 years
female: 16 years (2012)


Country name

conventional long form: Republic of San Marino
conventional short form: San Marino
local long form: Repubblica di San Marino
local short form: San Marino
etymology: named after Saint MARINUS, the traditional founder of the country

Government type

parliamentary republic


name: San Marino (city)
geographic coordinates: 43 56 N, 12 25 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative divisions

9 municipalities (castelli, singular - castello); Acquaviva, Borgo Maggiore, Chiesanuova, Domagnano, Faetano, Fiorentino, Montegiardino, San Marino Citta, Serravalle


3 September 301 (traditional founding date)

National holiday

Founding of the Republic, 3 September (A.D. 301)


history: consists of several legislative instruments, chief among them the Statutes (Leges Statuti) of 1600 and the Declaration of Citizen Rights of 1974
amendments: proposed by the Great and General Council; passage requires two-thirds majority Council vote; Council passage by absolute majority vote also requires passage in a referendum; Declaration of Civil Rights amended several times, last in 2012 (2016)

Legal system

civil law system with Italian civil law influences

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction


citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of San Marino
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 30 years


18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: co-chiefs of state Captain Regent Marino RICCARDI and Captain Regent Fabio BERARDI (for the period 1 October 2016 - 1 April 2017)
head of government: Secretary of State for Foreign and Political Affairs Pasquale VALENTINI (since 5 December 2012)
cabinet: Congress of State elected by the Grand and General Council
elections/appointments: co-chiefs of state (captains regent) indirectly elected by the Grand and General Council for a single 6-month term; election last held in September 2016 (next to be held in March 2017); secretary of state for foreign and political affairs indirectly elected by the Grand and General Council for a single 5-year term; election last held on 11 November 2012 (next to be held by November 2017)
election results: Marino RICCARDI (PSD) and Fabio BERARDI (PDCS) elected captains regent; percent of Grand and General Council vote - NA; Pasquale VALENTINI (PDCS) elected secretary of state for foreign and political affairs; percent of Grand and General Council vote - NA
note: the directly elected parliament (Grand and General Council) selects 2 of its members to serve as the captains regent (co-chiefs of state) for a 6-month period; they preside over meetings of the Grand and General Council and its cabinet (Congress of State), which has 9 other members, all are selected by the Grand and General Council; assisting the captains regent are 9 secretaries of state; the secretary of state for Foreign Affairs has some prime ministerial roles

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Grand and General Council or Consiglio Grande e Generale (60 seats; members directly elected by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)
elections: last held on 20 November 2016 (next to be held by November 2021)
election results: percent of vote by party - San Marino First 39.4% (including PDCS 24.5%, PS 7.7%, PSD 7.2%), Adesso, sm 31.0% (including Democratic Socialist Left 12.1%, Repubblica Futura 9.6%, Civic 10 9.3%), Democracy in Action 22.8% (including RETE Movement 18.3%, Democratic Movement-San Marino Together 4.5%); seats by party - San Marino First 25 (PDCS 16, PS 5, PSD 4), Adesso, sm 20 (Democratic Socialist Left 8, Repubblica Futura 6, Civic 10 6), Democracy in Action 15 (including RETE Movement 12, Democratic Movement-San Marino Together 3)

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Council of Twelve or Consiglio dei XII (consists of 12 members); note - the College of Guarantors for the Constitutionality and General Norms functions as San Marino's constitutional court
judge selection and term of office: judges elected by the Grand and General Council from among its own to serve 5-year terms
subordinate courts: first instance and first appeal criminal, administrative, and civil courts; justices of the peace or conciliatory judges

Political parties and leaders

San Marino Common Good (includes Sammarinese Christian Democratic Party or PDCS [Marco GATTI], We Sammarinese or NS [Marco ARZILLI], Party of Socialists and Democrats or PSD [Paride ANDREOLI], Popular Alliance or AP [Gabriele GATTI])
Entente for the Country (Intesa per il Paese; includes Socialist Party or PS [Alessandro BEVITORI], Union for the Republic or UPR [Marco PODESCHI)
Active Citizenship (includes Civic 10 [Mateo CIACCI], United Left or SU [Gastone PASOLINI])

Political pressure groups and leaders


International organization participation

CE, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAIA (observer), OPCW, OSCE, Schengen Convention (de facto member), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WHO, WIPO

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Paolo RONDELLI (since 16 July 2007)
chancery: 1711 N Street NW, 2nd floor, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: 202-250-1535
FAX: 202-223-2748

Diplomatic representation from the US

the US does not have an embassy in San Marino; the US Ambassador to Italy is accredited to San Marino

Flag description

two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and light blue with the national coat of arms superimposed in the center; the main colors derive from the shield of the coat of arms, which features three white towers on three peaks on a blue field; the towers represent three castles built on San Marino's highest feature, Mount Titano: Guaita, Cesta, and Montale; the coat of arms is flanked by a wreath, below a crown and above a scroll bearing the word LIBERTAS (Liberty); the white and blue colors are also said to stand for peace and liberty respectively

National symbol(s)

three peaks each displaying a tower; national colors: white, blue

National anthem

name: "Inno Nazionale della Repubblica" (National Anthem of the Republic)
lyrics/music: no lyrics/Federico CONSOLO
note: adopted 1894; the music for the lyric-less anthem is based on a 10th century chorale piece


GDP (official exchange rate)

$1.556 billion (2015 est.)

Economy - overview

San Marino's economy relies heavily on tourism, banking, and the manufacture and export of ceramics, clothing, fabrics, furniture, paints, spirits, tiles, and wine. The manufacturing and financial sectors account for more than half of San Marino's GDP. Th

San Marino's economy has been contracting since 2008, largely due to weakened demand from Italy - which accounts for nearly 90% of its export market - and financial sector consolidation. Difficulties in the banking sector, the recent global economic downt

The economy benefits from foreign investment due to its relatively low corporate taxes and low taxes on interest earnings. The income tax rate is also very low, about one-third the average EU level. San Marino continues to work towards harmonizing its fis

GDP (purchasing power parity)

$2.023 billion (2016 est.)
$2.003 billion (2015 est.)
$1.993 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars

GDP - real growth rate

1% (2016 est.)
0.5% (2015 est.)
-1% (2014 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP)

$65,300 (2016 est.)
$64,600 (2015 est.)
$64,300 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: NA%
government consumption: NA%
investment in fixed capital: NA%
investments in inventories: NA%
exports of goods and services: 176.6%
imports of goods and services: -153.3% (2011)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 0.1%
industry: 39.2%
services: 60.7% (2009)

Agriculture - products

wheat, grapes, corn, olives; cattle, pigs, horses, beef, cheese, hides


tourism, banking, textiles, electronics, ceramics, cement, wine

Industrial production growth rate

-1.1% (2012 est.)

Labor force

21,960 (September 2013 es)

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 0.2%
industry: 33.5%
services: 66.3% (September 2013 es)

Unemployment rate

8.7% (2014 est.)
8.1% (2013 est.)

Population below poverty line


Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%


revenues: $667.7 million
expenditures: $712.8 million (2011 est.)

Taxes and other revenues

42.9% of GDP (2011 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

-2.9% of GDP (2011 est.)

Public debt

25.8% of GDP (2013 est.)
20.3% of GDP (2012 est.)

Fiscal year

calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

0.6% (2016 est.)
0.1% (2015 est.)

Commercial bank prime lending rate

5.92% (31 December 2011 est.)
5.38% (31 December 2010 est.)

Stock of narrow money

$1.326 billion (31 December 2007)

Stock of broad money

$4.584 billion (31 December 2007)

Stock of domestic credit

$8.822 billion (30 September 2010)
$8.008 billion (31 December 2009)

Market value of publicly traded shares



$3.827 billion (2011 est.)
$2.576 billion (2010 est.)

Exports - commodities

building stone, lime, wood, chestnuts, wheat, wine, baked goods, hides, ceramics

Exports - partners

Italy 82.3% (2012 est.)


$2.551 billion (2011 est.)
$2.132 billion (2010 est.)

Imports - commodities

wide variety of consumer manufactures, food, energy

Imports - partners

Italy 81.8% (2012 est.)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$392 million (2014 est.)
$539.3 million (2013 est.)

Debt - external


Exchange rates

euros (EUR) per US dollar -
0.9214 (2016 est.)
0.885 (2015 est.)
0.885 (2014 est.)
0.7634 (2013 est.)
0.7752 2012 est.)


Electricity - access

electrification - total population: 100% (2016)


Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 16,550
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 50 (July 2015 est.)

Telephones - mobile cellular

total: 37,000
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 111 (July 2015 est.)

Telephone system

general assessment: automatic telephone system completely integrated into Italian system
domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity over 160 telephones per 100 persons
international: country code - 378; connected to Italian international network (2015)

Broadcast media

state-owned public broadcaster operates 1 TV station and 3 radio stations; receives radio and TV broadcasts from Italy (2012)

Internet country code


Internet users

total: 17,200
percent of population: 52.6% (July 2015 est.)


Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

T7 (2016)


total: 292 km
paved: 292 km (2006)


Military branches

no regular military forces; voluntary Military Corps (Corpi Militari) performs ceremonial duties and limited police support functions (2010)

Military service age and obligation

18 is the legal minimum age for voluntary military service; no conscription; government has the authority to call up all San Marino citizens from 16-60 years of age to service in the military (2012)

Military - note

defense is the responsibility of Italy

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international