First settled by the French in the early 17th century, the islands represent the sole remaining vestige of France's once vast North American possessions.



Northern North America, islands in the North Atlantic Ocean, south of Newfoundland (Canada)

Geographic coordinates

46 50 N, 56 20 W

Map references

North America


total: 242 sq km
land: 242 sq km
water: 0 sq km
note: includes eight small islands in the Saint Pierre and the Miquelon groups

Area - comparative

one and half times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries

0 km


120 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm


cold and wet, with considerable mist and fog; spring and autumn are often windy


mostly barren rock


mean elevation: NA
elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Morne de la Grande Montagne 240 m

Natural resources

fish, deepwater ports

Land use

agricultural land: 8.7%
arable land 8.7%; permanent crops 0%; permanent pasture 0%
forest: 12.5%
other: 78.8% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land

0 sq km (2012)

Natural hazards

persistent fog throughout the year can be a maritime hazard

Environment - current issues

recent test drilling for oil in waters around Saint Pierre and Miquelon may bring future development that would impact the environment

Geography - note

vegetation scanty; the islands are actually part of the northern Appalachians along with Newfoundland

People and Society


5,595 (July 2016 est.)


noun: Frenchman(men), Frenchwoman(women)
adjective: French

Ethnic groups

Basques and Bretons (French fishermen)


French (official)


Roman Catholic 99%, other 1%

Birth rate

7.2 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 15.57% (male 449/female 422)
15-24 years: 9.06% (male 263/female 244)
25-54 years: 42.29% (male 1,165/female 1,201)
55-64 years: 13.6% (male 399/female 362)
65 years and over: 19.48% (male 456/female 634) (2016 est.)

Median age

total: 45.9 years
male: 45.4 years
female: 46.3 years (2016 est.)

Population growth rate

-1.09% (2016 est.)

Death rate

9.8 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)

Net migration rate

-8.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)

Population distribution

most of the population is found on Saint Pierre Island; a small settlement is located on the north end of Miquelon Island


urban population: 90.4% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 0.1% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population

SAINT-PIERRE (capital) 5,000 (2014)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2016 est.)

Infant mortality rate

total: 6.6 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 7.7 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 5.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 80.5 years
male: 78.2 years
female: 83 years (2016 est.)

Total fertility rate

1.57 children born/woman (2016 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate


HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS


HIV/AIDS - deaths



Country name

conventional long form: Territorial Collectivity of Saint Pierre and Miquelon
conventional short form: Saint Pierre and Miquelon
local long form: Departement de Saint-Pierre et Miquelon
local short form: Saint-Pierre et Miquelon
etymology: Saint-Pierre is named after Saint PETER, the patron saint of fishermen; Miquelon may be a corruption of the Basque name Mikelon

Dependency status

self-governing territorial overseas collectivity of France

Government type

parliamentary democracy (Territorial Council); overseas collectivity of France


name: Saint-Pierre
geographic coordinates: 46 46 N, 56 11 W
time difference: UTC-3 (2 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins second Sunday in March; ends first Sunday in November


none (territorial collectivity of France; has been under French control since 1763)

Administrative divisions

none (territorial overseas collectivity of France); note - there are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US Government, but there are 2 communes at the second order - Saint Pierre, Miquelon

National holiday

Fete de la Federation, 14 July (1789)


4 October 1958 (French Constitution)

Legal system

French civil law


see France


18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Francois HOLLANDE (since 15 May 2012); represented by Prefect Jean-Regis BORIUS (since 2016)
head of government: President of Territorial Council Stephane ARTANO (since 21 February 2007)
cabinet: Le Cabinet du Prefet
elections/appointments: French president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 6 May 2012 (next to be held in 2017); prefect appointed by French president on the advice of French Ministry of Interior

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Territorial Council or Conseil Territorial (19 seats - 15 from Saint Pierre and 4 from Miquelon; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote to serve 6-year terms)
note: Saint Pierre and Miquelon elect 1 member to the French Senate; elections last held on 28 September 2014 (next to be held not later than September 2017); results - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - AD 1 (affiliated with UMP); Saint Pierre and Miquelon also elects 1 member to the French National Assembly; elections last held on 17 June 2012 (next to be held by June 2017); results - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Ensemble pour l'Avenir 1 (affiliated with PRG)
elections: elections last held on 18 March 2012 (next to be held in March 2018)
election results: percent of vote by party - AD 52.5%, Ensemble pour l'Avenir 47.5%; seats by party - AD 14, Ensemble pour l'Avenir 5

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Superior Tribunal of Appeals or Tribunal Superieur d'Appel (composition NA)
judge selection and term of office: judge selection and tenure NA
subordinate courts: NA

Political parties and leaders

Archipelago Tomorrow or AD (affiliated with UMP)
Togerther for the Future (Ensemble pour l'Avenir) (affiliated with PRG)

Political pressure groups and leaders


International organization participation


Diplomatic representation in the US

none (territorial overseas collectivity of France)

Diplomatic representation from the US

none (territorial overseas collectivity of France)

National symbol(s)

16th-century sailing ship

Flag description

a yellow three-masted sailing ship facing the hoist side rides on a blue background with scattered, white, wavy lines under the ship; a continuous black-over-white wavy line divides the ship from the white wavy lines; on the hoist side, a vertical band is divided into three parts: the top part (called ikkurina) is red with a green diagonal cross extending to the corners overlaid by a white cross dividing the rectangle into four sections; the middle part has a white background with an ermine pattern; the third part has a red background with two stylized yellow lions outlined in black, one above the other; these three heraldic arms represent settlement by colonists from the Basque Country (top), Brittany, and Normandy; the blue on the main portion of the flag symbolizes the Atlantic Ocean and the stylized ship represents the Grande Hermine in which Jacques Cartier "discovered" the islands in 1536
note: the flag of France used for official occasions

National anthem

note: as a collectivity of France, "La Marseillaise" is official (see France)


Economy - overview

The inhabitants have traditionally earned their livelihood by fishing and by servicing fishing fleets operating off the coast of Newfoundland. The economy has been declining, however, because of disputes with Canada over fishing quotas and a steady declin

In 1992, an arbitration panel awarded the islands an exclusive economic zone of 12,348 sq km to settle a longstanding territorial dispute with Canada, although it represents only 25% of what France had sought. France heavily subsidizes the islands to the

The government hopes an expansion of tourism will boost economic prospects. Fish farming, crab fishing, and agriculture are being developed to diversify the local economy. Recent test drilling for oil may pave the way for development of the energy sector.

GDP (purchasing power parity)

$215.3 million (2006 est.)
note: supplemented by annual payments from France of about $60 million

GDP (official exchange rate)

$215.3 million (2006 est.)

GDP - real growth rate


GDP - per capita (PPP)

$34,900 (2006 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 2%
industry: 15%
services: 83% (2006 est.)

Agriculture - products

vegetables; poultry, cattle, sheep, pigs; fish


fish processing and supply base for fishing fleets; tourism

Industrial production growth rate


Labor force

3,194 (2006)

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 18%
industry: 41%
services: 41% (1996 est.)

Unemployment rate

9.9% (2008 est.)

Population below poverty line


Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%


revenues: $70 million
expenditures: $60 million (1996 est.)

Taxes and other revenues

32.5% of GDP (1996 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

4.6% of GDP (1996 est.)

Fiscal year

calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

4.5% (2010)
8.1% (2005)


$6.641 million (2010 est.)
$5.5 million (2005 est.)

Exports - commodities

fish and fish products, soybeans, animal feed, mollusks and crustaceans, fox and mink pelts


$95.35 million (2010 est.)
$68.2 million (2005 est.)

Imports - commodities

meat, clothing, fuel, electrical equipment, machinery, building materials

Debt - external


Exchange rates

euros (EUR) per US dollar -
0.9214 (2016 est.)
0.885 (2015 est.)
0.885 (2014 est.)
0.7634 (2013 est.)
0.7752 (2012 est.)


Electricity - production

45 million kWh (2014 est.)

Electricity - consumption

41.85 million kWh (2014 est.)

Electricity - exports

0 kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - imports

0 kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - installed generating capacity

27,600 kW (2014 est.)

Electricity - from fossil fuels

97.7% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from nuclear fuels

0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants

0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from other renewable sources

2.3% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Crude oil - production

0 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Crude oil - exports

0 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Crude oil - imports

0 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Crude oil - proved reserves

0 bbl (1 January 2016 es)

Refined petroleum products - production

0 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - consumption

630 bbl/day (2014 est.)

Refined petroleum products - exports

0 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - imports

624.9 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Natural gas - production

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - consumption

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - exports

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - imports

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves

0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy

200,000 Mt (2013 est.)


Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 4,800
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 80 (July 2010 est.)

Telephone system

general assessment: adequate
international: country code - 508; radiotelephone communication with most countries in the world; satellite earth station - 1 in French domestic satellite system

Broadcast media

2 TV stations with a third repeater station, all part of the French Overseas Network; radio stations on St. Pierre and on Miquelon are part of the French Overseas Network (2007)

Internet country code


Internet users

total: 4,500
percent of population: 79.5% (July 2015 est.)



2 (2013)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)


total: 117 km
paved: 80 km
unpaved: 37 km (2009)

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Saint-Pierre


Military - note

defense is the responsibility of France

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international