The principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia - for centuries under the suzerainty of the Turkish Ottoman Empire - secured their autonomy in 1856; they were de facto linked in 1859 and formally united in 1862 under the new name of Romania. The country gained recognition of its independence in 1878. It joined the Allied Powers in World War I and acquired new territories - most notably Transylvania - following the conflict. In 1940, Romania allied with the Axis powers and participated in the 1941 German invasion of the USSR. Three years later, overrun by the Soviets, Romania signed an armistice. The post-war Soviet occupation led to the formation of a communist "people's republic" in 1947 and the abdication of the king. The decades-long rule of dictator Nicolae CEAUSESCU, who took power in 1965, and his Securitate police state became increasingly oppressive and draconian through the 1980s. CEAUSESCU was overthrown and executed in late 1989. Former communists dominated the government until 1996 when they were swept from power. Romania joined NATO in 2004 and the EU in 2007.



Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Ukraine

Geographic coordinates

46 00 N, 25 00 E

Map references



total: 238,391 sq km
land: 229,891 sq km
water: 8,500 sq km

Area - comparative

slightly smaller than Oregon

Land boundaries

total: 2,844 km
border countries (5): Bulgaria 605 km, Hungary 424 km, Moldova 683 km, Serbia 531 km, Ukraine 601 km


225 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation


temperate; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow and fog; sunny summers with frequent showers and thunderstorms


central Transylvanian Basin is separated from the Moldavian Plateau on the east by the Eastern Carpathian Mountains and separated from the Walachian Plain on the south by the Transylvanian Alps


mean elevation: 414 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Black Sea 0 m
highest point: Moldoveanu 2,544 m

Natural resources

petroleum (reserves declining), timber, natural gas, coal, iron ore, salt, arable land, hydropower

Land use

agricultural land: 60.7%
arable land 39.1%; permanent crops 1.9%; permanent pasture 19.7%
forest: 28.7%
other: 10.6% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land

31,490 sq km (2012)

Natural hazards

earthquakes, most severe in south and southwest; geologic structure and climate promote landslides

Environment - current issues

soil erosion and degradation; water pollution; air pollution in south from industrial effluents; contamination of Danube delta wetlands

Environment - international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note

controls the most easily traversable land route between the Balkans, Moldova, and Ukraine; the Carpathian Mountains dominate the center of the country, while the Danube River forms much of the southern boundary with Serbia and Bulgaria

People and Society

Population growth rate

-0.32% (2016 est.)


21,599,736 (July 2016 est.)


noun: Romanian(s)
adjective: Romanian

Ethnic groups

Romanian 83.4%, Hungarian 6.1%, Roma 3.1%, Ukrainian 0.3%, German 0.2%, other 0.7%, unspecified 6.1% (2011 est.)


Romanian (official) 85.4%, Hungarian 6.3%, Romany (Gypsy) 1.2%, other 1%, unspecified 6.1% (2011 est.)


Eastern Orthodox (including all sub-denominations) 81.9%, Protestant (various denominations including Reformed and Pentecostal) 6.4%, Roman Catholic 4.3%, other (includes Muslim) 0.9%, none or atheist 0.2%, unspecified 6.3% (2011 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 14.4% (male 1,597,470/female 1,512,701)
15-24 years: 10.76% (male 1,192,310/female 1,131,655)
25-54 years: 45.97% (male 5,023,060/female 4,905,559)
55-64 years: 12.8% (male 1,293,423/female 1,471,480)
65 years and over: 16.07% (male 1,403,211/female 2,068,867) (2016 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 48.9%
youth dependency ratio: 23.1%
elderly dependency ratio: 25.8%
potential support ratio: 3.9% (2015 est.)

Median age

total: 40.7 years
male: 39.3 years
female: 42.1 years (2016 est.)

Birth rate

9 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)

Death rate

11.9 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)

Net migration rate

-0.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)

Population distribution

urbanization is not particularly high, and a fairly even population distribution can be found throughout most of the country, with urban areas attracting larger and denser populations; Hungarians, the country's largest minority, have a particularly strong presence in eastern Transylvania


urban population: 54.6% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 0.01% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population

BUCHAREST (capital) 1.868 million (2015)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.88 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.68 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2016 est.)

Maternal mortality rate

31 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)

Infant mortality rate

total: 9.6 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 11 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 8.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 75.1 years
male: 71.7 years
female: 78.8 years (2016 est.)

Total fertility rate

1.34 children born/woman (2016 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

note: percent of women aged 18-49 (2005)

Health expenditures

5.6% of GDP (2014)

Physicians density

2.45 physicians/1,000 population (2012)

Hospital bed density

6.1 beds/1,000 population (2011)

Drinking water source

urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)

Sanitation facility access

urban: 92.2% of population
rural: 63.3% of population
total: 79.1% of population
urban: 7.8% of population
rural: 36.7% of population
total: 20.9% of population (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate

0.11% (2013 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS

16,200 (2013 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths

500 (2013 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

23.4% (2014)

Education expenditures

2.9% of GDP (2012)


definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98.8%
male: 99.1%
female: 98.5% (2015 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 15 years
male: 14 years
female: 15 years (2012)

Mother's mean age at first birth

22 (2013 est.)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24

total: 24%
male: 23.6%
female: 24.7% (2014 est.)


Country name

conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Romania
local long form: none
local short form: Romania
etymology: the name derives from the Latin "Romanus" meaning "citizen of Rome" and was used to stress the common ancient heritage of Romania's three main regions - Moldavia, Transylvania, and Wallachia - during their gradual unification between the mid-19th century and early 20th century

Government type

semi-presidential republic


name: Bucharest
geographic coordinates: 44 26 N, 26 06 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative divisions

41 counties (judete, singular - judet) and 1 municipality* (municipiu); Alba, Arad, Arges, Bacau, Bihor, Bistrita-Nasaud, Botosani, Braila, Brasov, Bucuresti (Bucharest)*, Buzau, Calarasi, Caras-Severin, Cluj, Constanta, Covasna, Dambovita, Dolj, Galati, Gorj, Giurgiu, Harghita, Hunedoara, Ialomita, Iasi, Ilfov, Maramures, Mehedinti, Mures, Neamt, Olt, Prahova, Salaj, Satu Mare, Sibiu, Suceava, Teleorman, Timis, Tulcea, Vaslui, Valcea, Vrancea


9 May 1877 (independence proclaimed from the Ottoman Empire; independence recognized on 13 July 1878 by the Treaty of Berlin); 26 March 1881 (kingdom proclaimed); 30 December 1947 (republic proclaimed)

National holiday

Unification Day (of Romania and Transylvania), 1 December (1918)


history: several previous; latest adopted 21 November 1991, approved by referendum and effective 8 December 1991
amendments: initiated by the president of Romania through a proposal by the government, by at least one-fourth of deputies or senators in Parliament, or by petition of eligible voters representing at least one-half of Romania’s counties; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote by both chambers or – if mediation is required - by three-fourths majority vote in a joint session, followed by approval in a referendum; articles including those on national sovereignty, form of government, political pluralism, and fundamental rights and freedoms cannot be amended; amended 2003 (2016)

Legal system

civil law system

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction


citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Romania
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years


18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Klaus Werner IOHANNIS (since 21 December 2014)
head of government: Prime Minister Dacian CIOLOS (since 17 November 2015); Deputy Prime Ministers Costin Grigore BORC and Vasile DANCU (since 17 November 2015)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 2 November 2014 with a runoff on 16 November 2014 (next to be held around 16 November 2019); prime minister appointed by the president with consent of Parliament
election results: Klaus IOHANNIS elected president; percent of vote in runoff - Klaus IOHANNIS (PNL) 54.4%, Victor PONTA (PSD) 45.6%

Legislative branch

description: bicameral Parliament or Parlament consists of the Senate or Senat (136 seats; members serve 4-year terms) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camera Deputatilor (330 seats; members serve 4-year terms); note - 18 reserved seats for non-Hungarian national minorities and 4 for the Romanian diaspora in the Chamber of Deputies; 2 seats for the Romanian diaspora in the Senate
elections: Senate - last held on 11 December 2016 (next to be held by December 2020); Chamber of Deputies - last held on 11 December 2016 (next to be held by December 2020)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - PSD 45.7%, PNL 20.4%, USR 8.9%, UDMR 6.2%, ALDE 6%, PMP 5.7%, other 7.1%; seats by party - PSD 67, PNL 30, USR 13, UDMR 9, ALDE 9, PMP 8; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - PSD 45.5%, PNL 20%, USR 8.9%, UDMR 6.2%, ALDE 5.6%, PMP 5.3%, other 8.5%; seats by party - PSD 154, PNL 69, USR 30, UDMR 21, ALDE 20, PMP 18, minorities 18

Judicial branch

highest court(s): High Court of Cassation and Justice (consists of 111 judges organized into civil, penal, commercial, contentious administrative and fiscal business, and joint sections); Supreme Constitutional Court (consists of 9 members)
judge selection and term of office: High Court of Cassation and Justice judges appointed by the president upon nomination by the Superior Council of Magistracy, a 19-member body of judges, prosecutors, and law specialists; judges appointed for 6-year renewable terms; Constitutional Court members - 6 elected by Parliament and 3 appointed by the president; members serve 9-year, non-renewable terms
subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; regional tribunals; first instance courts; military and arbitration courts

Political parties and leaders

Christian-Democratic National Peasants' Party or PNT-CD [Aurelian PAVELESCU] (formerly part of the ARD coalition)
Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania or UDMR [Hunor KELEMEN]
Green Party [Remus CERNEA]
M10 Party [Monica MACOVEI]
National Liberal Party or PNL [Alina GORGHIU] - merged with former PDL and FC
National Union for Romania's Progress or UNPR [interim chairman Neculai ONTANU] - merged with former PP-DD
New Republic Party or NR [Alin Ioan BOTA]
Popular Movement Party or PMP [Traian BASESCU]
Party of the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats or ALDE [Calin POPESCU TARICEANU, Daniel CONSTANTIN]
Romanian Social Party or PSRo [Mircea GEOANA]
Save Romania Union Party or USR [Nicusor DAN]
Social Democratic Party or PSD [Liviu DRAGNEA]
Social Liberal Union or USL (coalition of PSD, PC, and UNPR)
United Romania Party or PRU [Bogdan DIACONU]

National symbol(s)

golden eagle; national colors: blue, yellow, red

Political pressure groups and leaders

other: various human rights and professional associations

International organization participation


Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador George Cristian MAIOR (since 17 September 2015)
chancery: 1607 23rd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 332-4846, 4848, 4851, 4852
FAX: [1] (202) 232-4748
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Hans G. KLEMM (since 21 September 2015)
embassy: Bulevardul Dr. Liviu Librescu 4-6, District 1, Bucharest, 015118
mailing address: American Embassy Bucharest, US Department of State, 5260 Bucharest Place, Washington, DC 20521-5260 (pouch)
telephone: [40] (21) 200-3300
FAX: [40] (21) 200-3442

Flag description

three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red; modeled after the flag of France, the colors are those of the principalities of Walachia (red and yellow) and Moldavia (red and blue), which united in 1862 to form Romania; the national coat of arms that used to be centered in the yellow band has been removed
note: now similar to the flag of Chad, whose blue band is darker; also resembles the flags of Andorra and Moldova

National anthem

name: "Desteapta-te romane!" (Wake up, Romanian!)
lyrics/music: Andrei MURESIANU/Anton PANN
note: adopted 1990; the anthem was written during the 1848 Revolution


Industrial production growth rate

2% (2016 est.)

Economy - overview

Romania, which joined the EU on 1 January 2007, began the transition from communism in 1989 with a largely obsolete industrial base and a pattern of output unsuited to the country's needs. Romania's macroeconomic gains have only recently started to spur c

In the aftermath of the global financial crisis, Romania signed a $26 billion emergency assistance package from the IMF, the EU, and other international lenders, but GDP contracted until 2011. In March 2011, Romania and the IMF/EU/World Bank signed a 24-m

Economic growth rebounded in 2013-16, driven by strong industrial exports and excellent agricultural harvests, and the fiscal deficit was reduced substantially. Industry outperformed other sectors of the economy in 2016. Exports remained an engine of econ

An aging population, significant tax evasion, insufficient health care, and an aggressive loosening of the fiscal package jeopardize the low fiscal deficit and public debt and are the economy's top vulnerabilities.

GDP (purchasing power parity)

$441 billion (2016 est.)
$420.2 billion (2015 est.)
$405 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)

$186.5 billion (2015 est.)

GDP - real growth rate

5% (2016 est.)
3.8% (2015 est.)
3% (2014 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP)

$22,300 (2016 est.)
$21,100 (2015 est.)
$20,300 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars

Gross national saving

23% of GDP (2016 est.)
24.4% of GDP (2015 est.)
24.8% of GDP (2014 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 69.4%
government consumption: 6.7%
investment in fixed capital: 25.2%
investment in inventories: 0.3%
exports of goods and services: 40.9%
imports of goods and services: -42.5% (2016 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 3.3%
industry: 35.4%
services: 61.3% (2016 est.)

Agriculture - products

wheat, corn, barley, sugar beets, sunflower seed, potatoes, grapes; eggs, sheep


electric machinery and equipment, auto assembly, textiles and footwear, light machinery, metallurgy, chemicals, food processing, petroleum refining, mining, timber, construction materials

Labor force

9.133 million (2016 est.)

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 28.3%
industry: 28.9%
services: 42.8% (2014)

Unemployment rate

6.7% (2016 est.)
6.8% (2015 est.)

Population below poverty line

22.4% (2012 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 15.3%
highest 10%: 7.6% (2014 est.)

Distribution of family income - Gini index

27.3 (2012)
28.2 (2010)


revenues: $56.84 billion
expenditures: $62.14 billion (2016 est.)

Taxes and other revenues

30.5% of GDP (2016 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

-2.8% of GDP (2016 est.)

Public debt

39.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
38.4% of GDP (2015 est.)
note: defined by the EU's Maastricht Treaty as consolidated general government gross debt at nominal value, outstanding at the end of the year in the following categories of government liabilities: currency and deposits, securities other than shares excluding f

Fiscal year

calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

-1.1% (2016 est.)
-0.6% (2015 est.)

Central bank discount rate

1.75% (31 December 2015)
2.75% (31 December 2014)

Commercial bank prime lending rate

6% (31 December 2016 est.)
6.77% (31 December 2015 est.)

Stock of narrow money

$30.67 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$36.06 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

Stock of broad money

$71.58 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$78.18 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of domestic credit

$65.93 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$64.47 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares

$36.5 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$41.04 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$42.59 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

Current account balance

-$3.733 billion (2016 est.)
-$2.032 billion (2015 est.)


$56.03 billion (2016 est.)
$54.52 billion (2015 est.)

Exports - commodities

machinery and equipment, other manufactured goods, agricultural products and foodstuffs, metals and metal products, chemicals, minerals and fuels, raw materials

Exports - partners

Germany 19.8%, Italy 12.5%, France 6.8%, Hungary 5.4%, UK 4.4% (2015)


$66.45 billion (2016 est.)
$63.12 billion (2015 est.)

Imports - commodities

machinery and equipment, other manufactured goods, chemicals, agricultural products and foodstuffs, fuels and minerals, metals and metal products, raw materials

Imports - partners

Germany 19.8%, Italy 10.9%, Hungary 8%, France 5.6%, Poland 4.9%, China 4.6%, Netherlands 4% (2015)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$39.86 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$38.71 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

Debt - external

$101.4 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$102.6 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home

$76.41 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$72.21 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad

$4.018 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$3.618 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

Exchange rates

lei (RON) per US dollar -
4.15 (2016 est.)
4.0057 (2015 est.)
4.0057 (2014 est.)
3.3492 (2013 est.)
3.47 (2012 est.)


Electricity - access

electrification - total population: 100% (2016)

Electricity - production

62 billion kWh (2014 est.)

Electricity - consumption

48 billion kWh (2014 est.)

Electricity - exports

9.9 billion kWh (2014 est.)

Electricity - imports

2.8 billion kWh (2014 est.)

Electricity - installed generating capacity

24 million kW (2014 est.)

Electricity - from fossil fuels

44.3% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)

Electricity - from nuclear fuels

6.1% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants

30% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)

Electricity - from other renewable sources

19.6% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)

Crude oil - production

82,650 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Crude oil - exports

1,234 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Crude oil - imports

111,200 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Crude oil - proved reserves

600 million bbl (1 January 2016 es)

Refined petroleum products - production

216,400 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - consumption

192,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)

Refined petroleum products - exports

79,250 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - imports

50,280 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Natural gas - production

11.26 billion cu m (2015 est.)

Natural gas - consumption

11.54 billion cu m (2015 est.)

Natural gas - exports

1.078 million cu m (2015 est.)

Natural gas - imports

277.1 million cu m (2015 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves

105.5 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy

76 million Mt (2013 est.)


Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 4.27 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 20 (July 2015 est.)

Telephones - mobile cellular

total: 23.12 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 107 (July 2015 est.)

Telephone system

general assessment: the telecommunications sector is being expanded and modernized; domestic and international service improving rapidly, especially mobile-cellular services
domestic: more than 90% of telephone network is automatic; fixed-line teledensity is about 20 telephones per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity over 100 telephones per 100 persons
international: country code - 40; the Black Sea Fiber-Optic Cable System provides connectivity to Bulgaria and Turkey; satellite earth stations - 10; digital, international, direct-dial exchanges operate in Bucharest (2014)

Broadcast media

a mixture of public and private TV stations; there are 7 public TV stations (2 national, 5 regional) using terrestrial broadcasting and 187 private TV stations (out of which 171 offer local coverage) using terrestrial broadcasting, plus 11 public TV stati (2014)

Internet country code


Internet users

total: 12.082 million
percent of population: 55.8% (July 2015 est.)


National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 5
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 51
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 3,636,642
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 4,691,280 mt-km (2015)

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

YR (2016)


45 (2013)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 26
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 10
1,524 to 2,437 m: 11
under 914 m: 1 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 19
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 14 (2013)


2 (2013)


gas 3,726 km; oil 2,451 km (2013)


total: 11,268 km
broad gauge: 60 km 1.524-m gauge
standard gauge: 10,781 km 1.435-m gauge (3,292 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 427 km 0.760-m gauge (2014)


total: 84,185 km
paved: 49,873 km (includes 337 km of expressways)
unpaved: 34,312 km (2012)


1,731 km (includes 1,075 km on the Danube River, 524 km on secondary branches, and 132 km on canals) (2010)

Merchant marine

total: 5
by type: cargo 1, passenger/cargo 2, petroleum tanker 1, roll on/roll off 1
foreign-owned: 1 (Russia 1)
registered in other countries: 31 (Georgia 7, Liberia 3, Malta 7, Marshall Islands 2, Moldova 2, Panama 3, Russia 1, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1, Sierra Leone 2, Tanzania 1, Togo 1, unknown 1) (2010)

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Constanta, Midia
river port(s): Braila, Galati (Galatz), Mancanului (Giurgiu), Tulcea (Danube River)


Military branches

Land Forces, Naval Forces (Fortele Naval, FN), Romanian Air Force (Fortele Aeriene Romane, FAR) (2013)

Military service age and obligation

conscription ended 2006; 18 years of age for male and female voluntary service; all military inductees (including women) contract for an initial 5-year term of service, with subsequent successive 3-year terms until age 36 (2015)

Military expenditures

1.4% of GDP (2015)
1.42% of GDP (2014 est.)
1.3% of GDP (2013)
1.29% of GDP (2012)
1.3% of GDP (2011)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

the ICJ ruled largely in favor of Romania in its dispute submitted in 2004 over Ukrainian-administered Zmiyinyy/Serpilor (Snake) Island and Black Sea maritime boundary delimitation; Romania opposes Ukraine's reopening of a navigation canal from the Danube border through Ukraine to the Black Sea

Refugees and internally displaced persons

stateless persons: 240 (2015)

Illicit drugs

major transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin transiting the Balkan route and small amounts of Latin American cocaine bound for Western Europe; although not a significant financial center, role as a narcotics conduit leaves it vulnerable to laundering, which occurs via the banking system, currency exchange houses, and casinos