Following its heyday as a global maritime power during the 15th and 16th centuries, Portugal lost much of its wealth and status with the destruction of Lisbon in a 1755 earthquake, occupation during the Napoleonic Wars, and the independence of Brazil, its wealthiest colony, in 1822. A 1910 revolution deposed the monarchy; for most of the next six decades, repressive governments ran the country. In 1974, a left-wing military coup installed broad democratic reforms. The following year, Portugal granted independence to all of its African colonies. Portugal is a founding member of NATO and entered the EC (now the EU) in 1986.



Southwestern Europe, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, west of Spain

Geographic coordinates

39 30 N, 8 00 W

Map references



total: 92,090 sq km
land: 91,470 sq km
water: 620 sq km
note: includes Azores and Madeira Islands

Area - comparative

slightly smaller than Indiana

Land boundaries

total: 1,224 km
border countries (1): Spain 1,224 km


1,793 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation


maritime temperate; cool and rainy in north, warmer and drier in south


the west-flowing Tagus River divides the country: the north is mountainous toward the interior, while the south is characterized by rolling plains


mean elevation: 372 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Ponta do Pico (Pico or Pico Alto) on Ilha do Pico in the Azores 2,351 m

Natural resources

fish, forests (cork), iron ore, copper, zinc, tin, tungsten, silver, gold, uranium, marble, clay, gypsum, salt, arable land, hydropower

Land use

agricultural land: 39.7%
arable land 11.9%; permanent crops 7.8%; permanent pasture 20%
forest: 37.8%
other: 22.5% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land

5,400 sq km (2012)

Natural hazards

Azores subject to severe earthquakes
volcanism: limited volcanic activity in the Azores Islands; Fayal or Faial (elev. 1,043 m) last erupted in 1958; most volcanoes have not erupted in centuries; historically active volcanoes include Agua de Pau, Furnas, Pico, Picos Volcanic System, San Jorge, Sete Cidades, and Terceira

Environment - current issues

soil erosion; air pollution caused by industrial and vehicle emissions; water pollution, especially in coastal areas

Environment - international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Environmental Modification

Geography - note

Azores and Madeira Islands occupy strategic locations along western sea approaches to Strait of Gibraltar

People and Society


10,833,816 (July 2016 est.)


noun: Portuguese (singular and plural)
adjective: Portuguese

Ethnic groups

homogeneous Mediterranean stock; citizens of black African descent who immigrated to mainland during decolonization number less than 100,000; since 1990 East Europeans have entered Portugal


Portuguese (official), Mirandese (official, but locally used)


Roman Catholic 81%, other Christian 3.3%, other (includes Jewish, Muslim, other) 0.6%, none 6.8%, unspecified 8.3%
note: represents population 15 years of age and older (2011 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 15.5% (male 874,807/female 804,483)
15-24 years: 11.4% (male 655,234/female 579,669)
25-54 years: 41.88% (male 2,300,872/female 2,236,077)
55-64 years: 12.07% (male 610,886/female 697,287)
65 years and over: 19.15% (male 849,506/female 1,224,995) (2016 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 53.5%
youth dependency ratio: 21.6%
elderly dependency ratio: 31.9%
potential support ratio: 3.1% (2015 est.)

Median age

total: 41.8 years
male: 39.8 years
female: 44 years (2016 est.)

Population growth rate

0.07% (2016 est.)

Birth rate

9.1 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)

Death rate

11.1 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)

Net migration rate

2.6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)

Population distribution

concentrations are primarily along or near the Atlantic coast; both Lisbon and the second largest city, Porto, are coastal cities


urban population: 63.5% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 0.97% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population

LISBON (capital) 2.884 million; Porto 1.299 million (2015)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.09 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.13 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.88 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2016 est.)

Maternal mortality rate

10 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)

Infant mortality rate

total: 4.4 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 4.8 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 3.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 79.3 years
male: 76.1 years
female: 82.8 years (2016 est.)

Total fertility rate

1.53 children born/woman (2016 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

86.8% (2005/06)

Health expenditures

9.5% of GDP (2014)

Physicians density

4.1 physicians/1,000 population (2012)

Hospital bed density

3.4 beds/1,000 population (2011)

Drinking water source

urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)

Sanitation facility access

urban: 99.6% of population
rural: 99.8% of population
total: 99.7% of population
urban: 0.4% of population
rural: 0.2% of population
total: 0.3% of population (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate


HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS


HIV/AIDS - deaths


Obesity - adult prevalence rate

22.1% (2014)

Education expenditures

5.3% of GDP (2013)


definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 95.7%
male: 97.1%
female: 94.4% (2015 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 17 years
male: 17 years
female: 17 years (2014)

Mother's mean age at first birth

29.5 (2012 est.)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24

total: 34.8%
male: 34.2%
female: 35.4% (2014 est.)


Country name

conventional long form: Portuguese Republic
conventional short form: Portugal
local long form: Republica Portuguesa
local short form: Portugal
etymology: name derives from the Roman designation "Portus Cale" meaning "Port of Cale"; Cale was an ancient Celtic town and port in present-day northern Portugal

Government type

semi-presidential republic


name: Lisbon
geographic coordinates: 38 43 N, 9 08 W
time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative divisions

18 districts (distritos, singular - distrito) and 2 autonomous regions* (regioes autonomas, singular - regiao autonoma); Aveiro, Acores (Azores)*, Beja, Braga, Braganca, Castelo Branco, Coimbra, Evora, Faro, Guarda, Leiria, Lisboa (Lisbon), Madeira*, Portalegre, Porto, Santarem, Setubal, Viana do Castelo, Vila Real, Viseu


1143 (Kingdom of Portugal recognized); 5 October 1910 (republic proclaimed)

National holiday

Portugal Day (Dia de Portugal), 10 June (1580); note - also called Camoes Day, the day that revered national poet Luis de Camoes (1524-80) died


history: several previous; latest adopted 2 April 1976, effective 25 April 1976
amendments: proposed by the Assembly of the Republic; adoption requires two-thirds majority vote of Assembly members; amended several times, last in 2005 (2016)

Legal system

civil law system; Constitutional Court review of legislative acts

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction


citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Portugal
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years; 6 years if from a Portuguese speaking country


18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Marcelo REBELO DE SOUSA (since 9 March 2016)
head of government: Prime Minister Antonio Luis Santos da COSTA (since 24 November 2015)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 24 January 2016 (next to be held in January 2021); following legislative elections last held in October 2015, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition was appointed prime minister by the president
election results: Marcelo REBELO DE SOUSA elected president; percent of vote - Marcelo REBELO DE SOUSA (PSD) 52%, Antonio Sampaio da NOVA (independent) 22.9%, Marisa MATISA (BE) 10.1%, Maria de BELEM (independent) 4.2%, other 10.8%
note: there is also a Council of State that acts as a consultative body to the president

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Assembly of the Republic or Assembleia da Republica (230 seats; 226 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and 4 members - 2 each in 2 constituencies representing Portuguese living abroad - directly elected by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)
elections: last held on 4 October 2015 (next to be held by October 2019)
election results: percent of vote by party - Portugal Ahead Coalition (PAF) 36.9%, PS 32.3%, B.E. 10.2%, CDU 8.2%, PPD/PSD (Azores and Madeira) 1.5%, PAN 1.4%, other 9.5%; seats by party - PAF 102, PS 86, B.E. 19, CDU 17, PPD/PSD (Azores and Madeira) 5, PAN 1

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court or Supremo Tribunal de Justica (consists of 12 justices); Constitutional Court or Tribunal Constitucional (consists of 13 judges)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court justices nominated by the president and appointed by the Assembly of the Republic; judges appointed for life; Constitutional Court judges - 10 elected by the Assembly and 3 elected by the other Constitutional Court judges; judges elected for 6-year non-renewable terms
subordinate courts: Supreme Administrative Court (Supremo Tribunal Administrativo); Audit Court (Tribunal de Contas); appellate, district, and municipal courts

Political parties and leaders

Democratic and Social Center/Popular Party or CDS/PP [Assuncao CRISTAS]
Ecologist Party (The Greens) or PEV [Jose Luis FERREIRA and Heloisa APOLONIA]
Portuguese Communist Party or PCP [Jeronimo DE SOUSA]
Portugal Ahead Coalition or PAF (includes PSD and CDS/PP)
Social Democratic Party or PPD/PSD [Fernando RUAS]
Socialist Party or PS [Antonio COSTA]
The Left Bloc or BE [Catarina Soares MARTINS]
Unitarian Democratic Coalition or CDU [Jeronimo DE SOUSA] (includes Portuguese Communist Party or PCP and Ecologist Party ("The Greens") or PEV)

Political pressure groups and leaders

Armed Forces Officers' Association or AOFA [Colonel Pereira CRACEL]
the Desperate Generation (youth movement protesting against low wages, precarious labor conditions, and unemployment)
General Workers Union or General Confederation of Portuguese Workers or UGT [Carlos SILVA]
Portuguese National Workers' Conference or CGTP [Armenio CARLOS]
TugaLeaks (a website that has become a mouthpiece for publicizing diverse protest action)
other: the media; labor unions

International organization participation

ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Australia Group, BIS, CD, CE, CERN, CPLP, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAIA (observer), MIGA, MINUSMA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club (associate), PCA, Schengen Convention, SELEC (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Domingos T?eixeira de Abreu Fezas VITAL (since 28 January 2016)
chancery: 2012 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 328-8610
FAX: [1] (202) 462-3726
consulate(s) general: Boston, New York, San Francisco
consulate(s): New Bedford (MA), Newark (NJ), Providence (RI)

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Robert A. SHERMAN (since 30 May 2014)
embassy: Avenida das Forcas Armadas, 1600-081 Lisbon
mailing address: Apartado 43033, 1601-301 Lisboa; PSC 83, APO AE 09726
telephone: [351] (21) 727-3300
FAX: [351] (21) 726-9109
consulate(s): Ponta Delgada (Azores)

Flag description

two vertical bands of green (hoist side, two-fifths) and red (three-fifths) with the national coat of arms (armillary sphere and Portuguese shield) centered on the dividing line; explanations for the color meanings are ambiguous, but a popular interpretation has green symbolizing hope and red the blood of those defending the nation

National symbol(s)

armillary sphere (a spherical astrolabe modeling objects in the sky and representing the Republic); national colors: red, green

National anthem

name: "A Portugesa" (The Song of the Portuguese)
lyrics/music: Henrique LOPES DE MENDOCA/Alfredo KEIL
note: adopted 1910; "A Portuguesa" was originally written to protest the Portuguese monarchy's acquiescence to the 1890 British ultimatum forcing Portugal to give up areas of Africa; the lyrics refer to the "insult" that resulted from the event


Economy - overview

Portugal has become a diversified and increasingly service-based economy since joining the European Community - the EU's predecessor - in 1986. Over the following two decades, successive governments privatized many state-controlled firms and liberalized k

The economy grew by more than the EU average for much of the 1990s, but the rate of growth slowed in 2001-08. The economy contracted in 2009, and fell again from 2011 to 2013, as the government implemented spending cuts and tax increases to comply with co

A continued reduction in private- and public-sector debt weighed on consumption and investment in 2016, holding back a stronger recovery. The prior center-right government passed legislation aimed at reducing labor market rigidity, and, this, along with s

GDP (purchasing power parity)

$297.1 billion (2016 est.)
$294.1 billion (2015 est.)
$289.9 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)

$205.9 billion (2015 est.)

GDP - real growth rate

1% (2016 est.)
1.5% (2015 est.)
0.9% (2014 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP)

$28,500 (2016 est.)
$28,300 (2015 est.)
$27,900 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars

Gross national saving

15% of GDP (2016 est.)
15.7% of GDP (2015 est.)
15.3% of GDP (2014 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 66.3%
government consumption: 18.1%
investment in fixed capital: 14.7%
investment in inventories: -0.1%
exports of goods and services: 39.9%
imports of goods and services: -38.9% (2016 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 2.4%
industry: 21.9%
services: 75.9% (2016 est.)

Agriculture - products

grain, potatoes, tomatoes, olives, grapes; sheep, cattle, goats, pigs, poultry, dairy products; fish


textiles, clothing, footwear, wood and cork, paper and pulp, chemicals, lubricants, automobiles and auto parts, base metals, minerals, porcelain and ceramics, glassware, technology, telecommunications; dairy products, wine, other foodstuffs; ship construc

Industrial production growth rate

0.9% (2016 est.)

Labor force

5.167 million (2016 est.)

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 8.6%
industry: 23.9%
services: 67.5% (2014 est.)

Population below poverty line

18.7% (2012 est.)

Unemployment rate

11.3% (2016 est.)
12.4% (2015 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 3.1%
highest 10%: 28.4% (1995 est.)

Distribution of family income - Gini index

34.2 (2013 est.)
34.2 (2012 est.)


revenues: $87.26 billion
expenditures: $92.25 billion (2016 est.)

Taxes and other revenues

42.4% of GDP (2016 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

-2.4% of GDP (2016 est.)

Public debt

126.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
129% of GDP (2015 est.)
note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as i

Fiscal year

calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

0.8% (2016 est.)
0.5% (2015 est.)

Central bank discount rate

0.05% (31 December 2014)
0.25% (31 December 2013)
note: this is the European Central Bank's rate on the marginal lending facility, which offers overnight credit to banks in the euro area

Commercial bank prime lending rate

4.1% (31 December 2016 est.)
4.49% (31 December 2015 est.)

Stock of narrow money

$87.6 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$72.29 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
note: see entry for the European Union for money supply for the entire euro area; the European Central Bank (ECB) controls monetary policy for the 18 members of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); individual members of the EMU do not control the quantity of

Stock of broad money

$296.1 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$316.2 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

Stock of domestic credit

$321.8 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$326.2 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares

$59.84 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$57.77 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$79.18 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

Current account balance

$46 million (2016 est.)
$838 million (2015 est.)


$52.2 billion (2016 est.)
$54.33 billion (2015 est.)

Exports - commodities

agricultural products, foodstuffs, wine, oil products, chemical products, plastics and rubber, hides, leather, wood and cork, wood pulp and paper, textile materials, clothing, footwear, machinery and tools, base metals

Exports - partners

Spain 25%, France 12.1%, Germany 11.8%, UK 6.7%, US 5.2%, Angola 4.2%, Netherlands 4% (2015)


$61.7 billion (2016 est.)
$64.49 billion (2015 est.)

Imports - commodities

agricultural products, chemical products, vehicles and other transport material, optical and precision instruments, computer accessories and parts, semiconductors and related devices, oil products, base metals, food products, textile materials

Imports - partners

Spain 32.9%, Germany 12.9%, France 7.4%, Italy 5.4%, Netherlands 5.1% (2015)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$19.4 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$19.62 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Debt - external

$449 billion (31 March 2016 est.)
$447 billion (31 March 2015 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home

$138.2 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$138.1 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad

$88.27 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$87.44 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

Exchange rates

euros (EUR) per US dollar -
0.9214 (2016 est.)
0.885 (2015 est.)
0.7525 (2014 est.)
0.7634 (2013 est.)
0.78 (2012 est.)


Electricity - access

electrification - total population: 100% (2016)

Electricity - production

50 billion kWh (2014 est.)

Electricity - consumption

46 billion kWh (2014 est.)

Electricity - exports

6.3 billion kWh (2014 est.)

Electricity - imports

7.2 billion kWh (2014 est.)

Electricity - installed generating capacity

19 million kW (2014 est.)

Electricity - from fossil fuels

42.4% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)

Electricity - from nuclear fuels

0% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants

28.2% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)

Electricity - from other renewable sources

29.4% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)

Crude oil - production

0 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Crude oil - exports

912.3 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Crude oil - imports

308,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Crude oil - proved reserves

0 bbl (1 January 2016 es)

Refined petroleum products - production

320,200 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Refined petroleum products - consumption

244,500 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Refined petroleum products - exports

138,400 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Refined petroleum products - imports

60,010 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Natural gas - production

0 cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - consumption

4.079 billion cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - exports

0 cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - imports

4.07 billion cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves

0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy

50 million Mt (2013 est.)


Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 4,682,997
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 43 (July 2015 est.)

Telephones - mobile cellular

total: 11.715 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 108 (July 2015 est.)

Telephone system

general assessment: Portugal's telephone system has a state-of-the-art network with broadband, high-speed capabilities
domestic: integrated network of coaxial cables, open-wire, microwave radio relay, and domestic satellite earth stations
international: country code - 351; a combination of submarine cables provide connectivity to Europe, North and East Africa, South Africa, the Middle East, Asia, and the US; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), NA Eutelsat; troposp (2015)

Broadcast media

Radio e Televisao de Portugal (RTP), the publicly owned TV broadcaster, operates 2 domestic channels and external service channels to Africa; overall, roughly 40 domestic TV stations; viewers have widespread access to international broadcasters with more (2008)

Internet country code


Internet users

total: 7.43 million
percent of population: 68.6% (July 2015 est.)


National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 12
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 122
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 12,635,233
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 343,971,094 mt-km (2015)

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

CR, CS (2016)


64 (2013)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 43
over 3,047 m: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
1,524 to 2,437 m: 8
914 to 1,523 m: 15
under 914 m: 8 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 21
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 20 (2013)


gas 1,344 km; oil 11 km; refined products 188 km (2013)


total: 3,075.1 km
broad gauge: 2,439 km 1.668-m gauge (1,633.4 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 108.1 km 1.000-m gauge
other: 528 km (gauge unspecified) (2014)


total: 82,900 km
paved: 71,294 km (includes 2,613 km of expressways)
unpaved: 11,606 km (2008)


210 km (on Douro River from Porto) (2011)

Merchant marine

total: 109
by type: bulk carrier 8, cargo 35, carrier 1, chemical tanker 21, container 7, liquefied gas 6, passenger 13, passenger/cargo 5, petroleum tanker 3, roll on/roll off 1, vehicle carrier 9
foreign-owned: 81 (Belgium 8, Colombia 1, Denmark 4, Germany 14, Greece 2, Italy 12, Japan 9, Mexico 1, Norway 2, Spain 18, Sweden 3, Switzerland 3, US 4)
registered in other countries: 15 (Cyprus 2, Malta 3, Panama 10) (2010)

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Leixoes, Lisbon, Setubal, Sines
LNG terminal (import): Sines


Military branches

Portuguese Army (Exercito Portuguesa), Portuguese Navy (Marinha Portuguesa; includes Marine Corps), Portuguese Air Force (Forca Aerea Portuguesa, FAP) (2013)

Military service age and obligation

18-30 years of age for voluntary military service; no compulsory military service, but conscription possible if insufficient volunteers available; women serve in the armed forces, on naval ships since 1993, but are prohibited from serving in some combatant specialties; reserve obligation to age 35 (2012)

Military expenditures

1.29% of GDP (2014)
1.2% of GDP (2013)
1.78% of GDP (2012)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

Portugal does not recognize Spanish sovereignty over the territory of Olivenza based on a difference of interpretation of the 1815 Congress of Vienna and the 1801 Treaty of Badajoz

Refugees and internally displaced persons

stateless persons: 14 (2015)

Illicit drugs

seizing record amounts of Latin American cocaine destined for Europe; a European gateway for Southwest Asian heroin; transshipment point for hashish from North Africa to Europe; consumer of Southwest Asian heroin