British influence and control over what would become Nigeria and Africa's most populous country grew through the 19th century. A series of constitutions after World War II granted Nigeria greater autonomy. After independence in 1960, politics were marked by coups and mostly military rule, until the death of a military head of state in 1998 allowed for a political transition. In 1999, a new constitution was adopted and a peaceful transition to civilian government was completed. The government continues to face the daunting task of institutionalizing democracy and reforming a petroleum-based economy, whose revenues have been squandered through corruption and mismanagement. In addition, Nigeria continues to experience longstanding ethnic and religious tensions. Although both the 2003 and 2007 presidential elections were marred by significant irregularities and violence, Nigeria is currently experiencing its longest period of civilian rule since independence. The general elections of April 2007 marked the first civilian-to-civilian transfer of power in the country's history and the elections of 2011 were generally regarded as credible. The 2015 election is considered the most well run in Nigeria since the return to civilian rule, with the umbrella opposition party, the All Progressives Congress, defeating the long-ruling People's Democratic Party that had governed since 1999.



Western Africa, bordering the Gulf of Guinea, between Benin and Cameroon

Geographic coordinates

10 00 N, 8 00 E

Map references



total: 923,768 sq km
land: 910,768 sq km
water: 13,000 sq km

Area - comparative

about six times the size of Georgia; slightly more than twice the size of California

Land boundaries

total: 4,477 km
border countries (4): Benin 809 km, Cameroon 1,975 km, Chad 85 km, Niger 1,608 km


853 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation


varies; equatorial in south, tropical in center, arid in north


southern lowlands merge into central hills and plateaus; mountains in southeast, plains in north


mean elevation: 380 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Chappal Waddi 2,419 m

Natural resources

natural gas, petroleum, tin, iron ore, coal, limestone, niobium, lead, zinc, arable land

Land use

agricultural land: 78%
arable land 37.3%; permanent crops 7.4%; permanent pasture 33.3%
forest: 9.5%
other: 12.5% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land

2,930 sq km (2012)

Natural hazards

periodic droughts; flooding

Environment - current issues

soil degradation; rapid deforestation; urban air and water pollution; desertification; oil pollution - water, air, and soil; has suffered serious damage from oil spills; loss of arable land; rapid urbanization

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note

the Niger River enters the country in the northwest and flows southward through tropical rain forests and swamps to its delta in the Gulf of Guinea

People and Society


note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2016 est.)


noun: Nigerian(s)
adjective: Nigerian

Ethnic groups

Nigeria, Africa's most populous country, is composed of more than 250 ethnic groups; the most populous and politically influential are: Hausa and the Fulani 29%, Yoruba 21%, Igbo (Ibo) 18%, Ijaw 10%, Kanuri 4%, Ibibio 3.5%, Tiv 2.5%


English (official), Hausa, Yoruba, Igbo (Ibo), Fulani, over 500 additional indigenous languages


Muslim 50%, Christian 40%, indigenous beliefs 10%

Demographic profile

Nigeria’s population is projected to grow from more than 186 million people in 2016 to 392 million in 2050, becoming the world’s fourth most populous country. Nigeria’s sustained high population growth rate will continue for the foreseeable future because of population momentum and its high birth rate. Abuja has not successfully implemented family planning programs to reduce and space births because of a lack of political will, government financing, and the availability and affordability of services and products, as well as a cultural preference for large families. Increased educational attainment, especially among women, and improvements in health care are needed to encourage and to better enable parents to opt for smaller families.
Nigeria needs to harness the potential of its burgeoning youth population in order to boost economic development, reduce widespread poverty, and channel large numbers of unemployed youth into productive activities and away from ongoing religious and ethnic violence. While most movement of Nigerians is internal, significant emigration regionally and to the West provides an outlet for Nigerians looking for economic opportunities, seeking asylum, and increasingly pursuing higher education. Immigration largely of West Africans continues to be insufficient to offset emigration and the loss of highly skilled workers. Nigeria also is a major source, transit, and destination country for forced labor and sex trafficking.

Age structure

0-14 years: 42.79% (male 40,744,956/female 38,870,303)
15-24 years: 19.48% (male 18,514,466/female 17,729,351)
25-54 years: 30.65% (male 29,259,621/female 27,768,368)
55-64 years: 3.96% (male 3,595,293/female 3,769,986)
65 years and over: 3.12% (male 2,754,040/female 3,047,002) (2016 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 87.7%
youth dependency ratio: 82.6%
elderly dependency ratio: 5.1%
potential support ratio: 19.5% (2015 est.)

Median age

total: 18.3 years
male: 18.2 years
female: 18.4 years (2016 est.)

Population growth rate

2.44% (2016 est.)

Birth rate

37.3 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)

Death rate

12.7 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)

Net migration rate

-0.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)

Health expenditures

3.7% of GDP (2014)


urban population: 47.8% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 4.66% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population

Lagos 13.123 million; Kano 3.587 million; Ibadan 3.16 million; ABUJA (capital) 2.44 million; Port Harcourt 2.343 million; Benin City 1.496 million (2015)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.91 male(s)/female
total population: 1.04 male(s)/female (2016 est.)

Child labor - children ages 5-14

total number: 11,396,823
percentage: 29% (2007 est.)

Maternal mortality rate

814 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)

Infant mortality rate

total: 71.2 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 76 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 66.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 53.4 years
male: 52.4 years
female: 54.5 years (2016 est.)

Total fertility rate

5.13 children born/woman (2016 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

15.1% (2013)

Physicians density

0.41 physicians/1,000 population (2009)

Drinking water source

urban: 80.8% of population
rural: 57.3% of population
total: 68.5% of population
urban: 19.2% of population
rural: 42.7% of population
total: 31.5% of population (2015 est.)

Sanitation facility access

urban: 32.8% of population
rural: 25.4% of population
total: 29% of population
urban: 67.2% of population
rural: 74.6% of population
total: 71% of population (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate

3.17% (2014 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS

3,391,600 (2014 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths

174,300 (2014 est.)

Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and yellow fever
water contact diseases: leptospirosis and schistosomiasis
respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
aerosolized dust or soil contact disease: Lassa fever
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

9.7% (2014)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

19.8% (2014)

Education expenditures



definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 59.6%
male: 69.2%
female: 49.7% (2015 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2013 est.)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24

total: 8.1%
male: NA
female: NA (2014 est.)


Country name

conventional long form: Federal Republic of Nigeria
conventional short form: Nigeria
etymology: named for the Niger River that flows through the west of the country to the Atlantic Ocean; from a native term "Ni Gir" meaning "River Gir"

Government type

federal presidential republic


name: Abuja
geographic coordinates: 9 05 N, 7 32 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions

36 states and 1 territory*; Abia, Adamawa, Akwa Ibom, Anambra, Bauchi, Bayelsa, Benue, Borno, Cross River, Delta, Ebonyi, Edo, Ekiti, Enugu, Federal Capital Territory*, Gombe, Imo, Jigawa, Kaduna, Kano, Katsina, Kebbi, Kogi, Kwara, Lagos, Nasarawa, Niger, Ogun, Ondo, Osun, Oyo, Plateau, Rivers, Sokoto, Taraba, Yobe, Zamfara


1 October 1960 (from the UK)

National holiday

Independence Day (National Day), 1 October (1960)


several previous; latest adopted 5 May 1999, effective 29 May 1999; amended several times, last in 2012 (2016)

Legal system

mixed legal system of English common law, Islamic law (in 12 northern states), and traditional law

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction


citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Nigeria
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 15 years


18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Maj. Gen. (ret.) Muhammadu BUHARI (since 29 May 2015); Vice President Oluyemi "Yemi" OSINBAJO (since 29 May 2015); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Maj.Gen. (ret.) Muhammadu BUHARI (since 29 May 2015); Vice President Oluyemi "Yemi" OSINBAJO (since 29 May 2015)
cabinet: Federal Executive Council appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president directly elected by 'qualified' majority popular vote and at least 25% of the votes cast in 24 of Nigeria's 36 states; president elected for a 4-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 28-29 March 2015 (next to be held in February 2019)
election results: Muhammadu BUHARI elected president; percent of vote - Muhammadu BUHARI (CPC) 53%, Goodluck JONATHAN (PDP) 46%, other 1%

Legislative branch

description: bicameral National Assembly consists of the Senate (109 seats - 3 each for the 36 states and 1 for Abuja; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 4-year terms) and the House of Representatives (360 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 4-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held on 28-29 March 2015 (next to be held in February 2019); House of Representatives - last held on 28-29 March 2015 (next to be held in 2019)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - APC 60, PDP 49; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - APC 225, PDP 125, other 10

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice and 15 justices)
judge selection and term of office: judges appointed by the president on the recommendation of the National Judicial Council, a 23-member independent body of federal and state judicial officials; judge appointments confirmed by the Senate; judges serve until age 65
subordinate courts: Court of Appeal; Federal High Court; High Court of the Federal Capital Territory; Sharia Court of Appeal of the Federal Capital Territory; Customary Court of Appeal of the Federal Capital Territory; state court system similar in structure to federal system

Political parties and leaders

Accord Party or ACC [Mohammad Lawal MALADO]
All Progressives Congress or APC [John Odigie OYEGUN]
All Progressives Grand Alliance or APGA [Victor C. UMEH]
Democratic Peoples Party or DPP [Biodun OGUNBIYI]
Labor Party or LP [Alhai Abdulkadir ABDULSALAM]
Peoples Democratic Party or PDP [Ahmed MAKARFI]

Political pressure groups and leaders

Academic Staff Union for Universities or ASUU
Campaign for Democracy or CD
Civil Liberties Organization or CLO
Committee for the Defense of Human Rights or CDHR
Constitutional Right Project or CRP
Human Right Africa
National Association of Democratic Lawyers or NADL
National Association of Nigerian Students or NANS
Nigerian Bar Association or NBA
Nigerian Labor Congress or NLC
Nigerian Medical Association or NMA
Universal Defenders of Democracy or UDD
other: the press

International organization participation


Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Hakeem Toyin BALOGUN (since 27 August 2015)
chancery: 3519 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 986-8400
FAX: [1] (202) 362-6541
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, New York

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Stuart SYMINGTON (since 1 December 2016)
embassy: Plot 1075 Diplomatic Drive, Central District Area, Abuja
mailing address: P. O. Box 5760, Garki, Abuja
telephone: [234] (9) 461-4000
FAX: [234] (9) 461-4171

Flag description

three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and green; the color green represents the forests and abundant natural wealth of the country, white stands for peace and unity

National symbol(s)

eagle; national colors: green, white

National anthem

name: "Arise Oh Compatriots, Nigeria's Call Obey"
lyrics/music: John A. ILECHUKWU, Eme Etim AKPAN, B. A. OGUNNAIKE, Sotu OMOIGUI and P. O. ADERIBIGBE/Benedict Elide ODIASE
note: adopted 1978; lyrics are a mixture of the five top entries in a national contest


Economy - overview

Following an April 2014 statistical "rebasing" exercise, Nigeria has emerged as Africa's largest economy, with 2015 GDP estimated at $1.1 trillion. Oil has been a dominant source of income and government revenues since the 1970s. Following the 2008-9 glob

Despite its strong fundamentals, oil-rich Nigeria has been hobbled by inadequate power supply, lack of infrastructure, delays in the passage of legislative reforms, an inefficient property registration system, restrictive trade policies, an inconsistent r

Because of lower oil prices, GDP in 2016 fell 1.7%, and government revenues declined, while the nonoil sector also contracted due to economic policy uncertainty. President BUHARI, elected in March 2015, has established a cabinet of economic ministers that

GDP (purchasing power parity)

$1.089 trillion (2016 est.)
$1.108 trillion (2015 est.)
$1.08 trillion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)

$415.1 billion (2015 est.)

GDP - real growth rate

-1.7% (2016 est.)
2.7% (2015 est.)
6.3% (2014 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP)

$5,900 (2016 est.)
$6,200 (2015 est.)
$6,200 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars

Gross national saving

13.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
12.4% of GDP (2015 est.)
16% of GDP (2014 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 79%
government consumption: 7.2%
investment in fixed capital: 14.2%
investment in inventories: 0.7%
exports of goods and services: 9%
imports of goods and services: -10.1% (2016 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 21.1%
industry: 19.4%
services: 59.5% (2016 est.)

Agriculture - products

cocoa, peanuts, cotton, palm oil, corn, rice, sorghum, millet, cassava (manioc, tapioca), yams, rubber; cattle, sheep, goats, pigs; timber; fish


crude oil, coal, tin, columbite; rubber products, wood; hides and skins, textiles, cement and other construction materials, food products, footwear, chemicals, fertilizer, printing, ceramics, steel

Industrial production growth rate

-4.7% (2016 est.)

Labor force

58.8 million (2016 est.)

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 70%
industry: 10%
services: 20% (1999 est.)

Unemployment rate

23.9% (2011 est.)
4.9% (2011 est.)

Population below poverty line

70% (2010 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 1.8%
highest 10%: 38.2% (2010 est.)

Distribution of family income - Gini index

43.7 (2003)
50.6 (1997)


revenues: $11.4 billion
expenditures: $21.21 billion (2016 est.)

Taxes and other revenues

2.7% of GDP (2016 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

-2.4% of GDP (2016 est.)

Public debt

13.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
11.5% of GDP (2015 est.)

Fiscal year

calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

15.3% (2016 est.)
9% (2015 est.)

Central bank discount rate

4.25% (31 December 2010)
6% (31 December 2009)

Commercial bank prime lending rate

18% (31 December 2016 est.)
16.85% (31 December 2015 est.)

Stock of narrow money

$33.51 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$43.62 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

Stock of broad money

$71.38 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$101.9 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

Stock of domestic credit

$80.77 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$111.7 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares

$49.97 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$63.47 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$80.61 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

Current account balance

-$2.856 billion (2016 est.)
-$15.44 billion (2015 est.)


$33.27 billion (2016 est.)
$45.89 billion (2015 est.)

Exports - commodities

petroleum and petroleum products 95%, cocoa, rubber (2012 est.)

Exports - partners

India 18.2%, Netherlands 8.5%, Spain 8.2%, Brazil 8.2%, South Africa 7.8%, France 5.2%, Japan 4.5%, Cote dIvoire 4.2%, Ghana 4% (2015)


$36.4 billion (2016 est.)
$52.33 billion (2015 est.)

Imports - commodities

machinery, chemicals, transport equipment, manufactured goods, food and live animals

Imports - partners

China 25.7%, US 6.4%, Netherlands 6.1%, India 4.3% (2015)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$23.47 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$29.07 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

Debt - external

$39.1 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$32.27 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home

$98.73 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$95.82 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad

$13.71 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$12.41 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

Exchange rates

nairas (NGN) per US dollar -
246.2 (2016 est.)
192.73 (2015 est.)
192.73 (2014 est.)
158.55 (2013 est.)
156.81 (2012 est.)


Electricity - access

population without electricity: 95,500,000
electrification - total population: 45%
electrification - urban areas: 55%
electrification - rural areas: 37% (2013)

Electricity - production

29 billion kWh (2014 est.)

Electricity - consumption

24 billion kWh (2014 est.)

Electricity - exports

0 kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - imports

0 kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - installed generating capacity

10 million kW (2014 est.)

Electricity - from fossil fuels

65% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from nuclear fuels

0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants

33.5% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from other renewable sources

1.5% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Crude oil - production

2.317 million bbl/day (2015 est.)

Crude oil - exports

2.231 million bbl/day (2013 est.)

Crude oil - imports

0 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Crude oil - proved reserves

37 billion bbl (1 January 2016 es)

Refined petroleum products - production

110,200 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - consumption

277,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)

Refined petroleum products - exports

22,480 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - imports

187,400 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Natural gas - production

43.84 billion cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - consumption

18.84 billion cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - exports

25 billion cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - imports

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves

5.111 trillion cu m (1 January 2016 es)

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy

97 million Mt (2013 est.)


Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 187,155
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (July 2015 est.)

Telephones - mobile cellular

total: 150.83 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 83 (July 2015 est.)

Telephone system

general assessment: further expansion and modernization of the fixed-line telephone network is needed; network quality remains a problem
domestic: fixed-line subscribership remains only about 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular services growing rapidly, in part responding to the shortcomings of the fixed-line network; multiple cellular providers operate nationally with subscribership base over 80 per
international: country code - 234; landing point for the SAT-3/WASC fiber-optic submarine cable that provides connectivity to Europe and Asia; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) (2015)

Broadcast media

nearly 70 federal government-controlled national and regional TV stations; all 36 states operate TV stations; several private TV stations operational; cable and satellite TV subscription services are available; network of federal government-controlled nat (2007)

Internet country code


Internet users

total: 86.138 million
percent of population: 47.4% (July 2015 est.)


National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 16
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 73
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 3,223,459
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 22,400,657 mt-km (2015)

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

5N (2016)


54 (2013)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 40
over 3,047 m: 10
2,438 to 3,047 m: 12
1,524 to 2,437 m: 9
914 to 1,523 m: 6
under 914 m: 3 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 14
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 9
under 914 m: 3 (2013)


5 (2013)


condensate 124 km; gas 4,045 km; liquid petroleum gas 164 km; oil 4,441 km; refined products 3,940 km (2013)


total: 3,798 km
standard gauge: 293 km 1.435-m gauge
narrow gauge: 3,505 km 1.067-m gauge (2014)


total: 193,200 km
paved: 28,980 km
unpaved: 164,220 km (2004)


8,600 km (Niger and Benue Rivers and smaller rivers and creeks) (2011)

Merchant marine

total: 89
by type: cargo 2, chemical tanker 28, liquefied gas 1, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 56, specialized tanker 1
foreign-owned: 3 (India 1, UK 2)
registered in other countries: 33 (Bahamas 2, Bermuda 11, Comoros 1, Italy 1, Liberia 4, North Korea 1, Panama 6, Seychelles 1, unknown 6) (2010)

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Bonny Inshore Terminal, Calabar, Lagos
LNG terminal(s) (export): Bonny Island

Transportation - note

the International Maritime Bureau reports the territorial and offshore waters in the Niger Delta and Gulf of Guinea as high risk for piracy and armed robbery of ships; in 2014, 18 commercial vessels were boarded or attacked compared with 31 attacks in 2013; crews were robbed and stores or cargoes stolen; Nigerian pirates have extended the range of their attacks to as far away as Cote d'Ivoire


Military branches

Nigerian Armed Forces: Army, Navy, Air Force (2013)

Military service age and obligation

18 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription (2012)

Military expenditures

0.89% of GDP (2012)
0.98% of GDP (2011)
0.89% of GDP (2010)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

Joint Border Commission with Cameroon reviewed 2002 ICJ ruling on the entire boundary and bilaterally resolved differences, including June 2006 Greentree Agreement that immediately cedes sovereignty of the Bakassi Peninsula to Cameroon with a phaseout of Nigerian control within two years while resolving patriation issues; the ICJ ruled on an equidistance settlement of Cameroon-Equatorial Guinea-Nigeria maritime boundary in the Gulf of Guinea, but imprecisely defined coordinates in the ICJ decision and a sovereignty dispute between Equatorial Guinea and Cameroon over an island at the mouth of the Ntem River all contribute to the delay in implementation; only Nigeria and Cameroon have heeded the Lake Chad Commission's admonition to ratify the delimitation treaty which also includes the Chad-Niger and Niger-Nigeria boundaries; location of Benin-Niger-Nigeria tripoint is unresolved

Refugees and internally displaced persons

IDPs: 2,093,030 (Boko Haram attacks and counterinsurgency efforts in northern Nigeria; communal violence between Christians and Muslims in the middle belt region, political violence; flooding; forced evictions; cattle rustling; competition for resources) (2016)

Illicit drugs

a transit point for heroin and cocaine intended for European, East Asian, and North American markets; consumer of amphetamines; safe haven for Nigerian narcotraffickers operating worldwide; major money-laundering center; massive corruption and criminal activity; Nigeria has improved some anti-money-laundering controls, resulting in its removal from the Financial Action Task Force's (FATF's) Noncooperative Countries and Territories List in June 2006; Nigeria's anti-money-laundering regime continues to be monitored by FATF