South Africa occupied the German colony of South-West Africa during World War I and administered it as a mandate until after World War II, when it annexed the territory. In 1966, the Marxist South-West Africa People's Organization (SWAPO) guerrilla group launched a war of independence for the area that became Namibia, but it was not until 1988 that South Africa agreed to end its administration in accordance with a UN peace plan for the entire region. Namibia has been governed by SWAPO since the country won independence in 1990, though the party has dropped much of its Marxist ideology. Prime Minister Hage GEINGOB was elected president in November 2014 in a landslide victory, replacing Hifikepunye POHAMBA who stepped down after serving two terms. SWAPO retained its parliamentary super majority in the November 2014 elections and established a system of gender parity in parliamentary positions.



Southern Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Angola and South Africa

Geographic coordinates

22 00 S, 17 00 E

Map references



total: 824,292 sq km
land: 823,290 sq km
water: 1,002 sq km

Area - comparative

slightly more than half the size of Alaska

Land boundaries

total: 4,220 km
border countries (4): Angola 1,427 km, Botswana 1,544 km, South Africa 1,005 km, Zambia 244 km


1,572 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm


desert; hot, dry; rainfall sparse and erratic


mostly high plateau; Namib Desert along coast; Kalahari Desert in east


mean elevation: 1,141 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Konigstein 2,606 m

Natural resources

diamonds, copper, uranium, gold, silver, lead, tin, lithium, cadmium, tungsten, zinc, salt, hydropower, fish
note: suspected deposits of oil, coal, and iron ore

Land use

agricultural land: 47.2%
arable land 1%; permanent crops 0%; permanent pasture 46.2%
forest: 8.8%
other: 44% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land

80 sq km (2012)

Natural hazards

prolonged periods of drought

Environment - current issues

limited natural freshwater resources; desertification; wildlife poaching; land degradation has led to few conservation areas

Environment - international agreements

party to: Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note

first country in the world to incorporate the protection of the environment into its constitution; some 14% of the land is protected, including virtually the entire Namib Desert coastal strip

People and Society


noun: Namibian(s)
adjective: Namibian


note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2016 est.)

Ethnic groups

black 87.5%, white 6%, mixed 6.5%
note: about 50% of the population belong to the Ovambo tribe and 9% to the Kavangos tribe; other ethnic groups include Herero 7%, Damara 7%, Nama 5%, Caprivian 4%, Bushmen 3%, Baster 2%, Tswana 0.5%


Oshiwambo languages 48.9%, Nama/Damara 11.3%, Afrikaans 10.4% (common language of most of the population and about 60% of the white population), Otjiherero languages 8.6%, Kavango languages 8.5%, Caprivi languages 4.8%, English (official) 3.4%, other African languages 2.3%, other 1.7%
note: Namibia has 13 recognized national languages, including 10 indigenous African languages and 3 Indo-European languages (2011 est.)


Christian 80% to 90% (at least 50% Lutheran), indigenous beliefs 10% to 20%

Demographic profile

Planning officials view Namibia’s reduced population growth rate as sustainable based on the country’s economic growth over the past decade. Prior to independence in 1990, Namibia’s relatively small population grew at about 3% annually, but declining fertility and the impact of HIV/AIDS slowed this growth to 1.4% by 2011, rebounding to close to 2% by 2016. Namibia’s fertility rate has fallen over the last two decades – from about 4.5 children per woman in 1996 to 3.4 in 2016 – due to increased contraceptive use, higher educational attainment among women, and greater female participation in the labor force. The average age at first birth has stayed fairly constant, but the age at first marriage continues to increase, indicating a rising incidence of premarital childbearing.
The majority of Namibians are rural dwellers (about 55%) and live in the better-watered north and northeast parts of the country. Migration, historically male-dominated, generally flows from northern communal areas – non-agricultural lands where blacks were sequestered under the apartheid system – to agricultural, mining, and manufacturing centers in the center and south. After independence from South Africa, restrictions on internal movement eased, and rural-urban migration increased, bolstering urban growth.
Some Namibians – usually persons who are better-educated, more affluent, and from urban areas – continue to legally migrate to South Africa temporarily to visit family and friends and, much less frequently, to pursue tertiary education or better economic opportunities. Namibians concentrated along the country’s other borders make unauthorized visits to Angola, Zambia, Zimbabwe, or Botswana, to visit family and to trade agricultural goods. Few Namibians express interest in permanently settling in other countries; they prefer the safety of their homeland, have a strong national identity, and enjoy a well-supplied retail sector. Although Namibia is receptive to foreign investment and cross-border trade, intolerance toward non-citizens is widespread.

Age structure

0-14 years: 37.39% (male 460,016/female 451,058)
15-24 years: 20.35% (male 246,266/female 249,570)
25-54 years: 34% (male 395,417/female 432,994)
55-64 years: 4.25% (male 46,769/female 56,798)
65 years and over: 4.01% (male 41,518/female 56,063) (2016 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 67.3%
youth dependency ratio: 61.4%
elderly dependency ratio: 5.9%
potential support ratio: 17% (2015 est.)

Median age

total: 21 years
male: 20.2 years
female: 21.7 years (2016 est.)

Population growth rate

1.98% (2016 est.)

Birth rate

27.9 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)

Death rate

8.1 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)

Net migration rate

0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)


urban population: 46.7% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 4.16% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population

WINDHOEK (capital) 368,000 (2015)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.91 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.82 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2016 est.)

Maternal mortality rate

265 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)

Infant mortality rate

total: 36.4 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 38.7 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 34.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 63.6 years
male: 62.1 years
female: 65.1 years (2016 est.)

Total fertility rate

3.36 children born/woman (2016 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

55.1% (2006/07)

Health expenditures

8.9% of GDP (2014)

Physicians density

0.37 physicians/1,000 population (2007)

Hospital bed density

2.7 beds/1,000 population (2009)

Drinking water source

urban: 98.2% of population
rural: 84.6% of population
total: 91% of population
urban: 1.8% of population
rural: 15.4% of population
total: 9% of population (2015 est.)

Sanitation facility access

urban: 54.5% of population
rural: 16.8% of population
total: 34.4% of population
urban: 45.5% of population
rural: 83.2% of population
total: 65.6% of population (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate

13.34% (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS

210,800 (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths

3,100 (2015 est.)

Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: malaria
water contact disease: schistosomiasis (2016)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

16.8% (2014)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

13.2% (2013)

Education expenditures

8.3% of GDP (2010)


definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 81.9%
male: 79.2%
female: 84.5% (2015 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 11 years
male: 11 years
female: 11 years (2006)

Mother's mean age at first birth

note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2013 est.)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24

total: 56.2%
male: 49.4%
female: 62.2% (2013 est.)


Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Namibia
conventional short form: Namibia
local long form: Republic of Namibia
local short form: Namibia
former: German South-West Africa (Deutsch Suedwest Afrika), South-West Africa
etymology: named for the coastal Namib Desert; the name "namib" means "vast place" in the Nama/Damara language

Government type

presidential republic


name: Windhoek
geographic coordinates: 22 34 S, 17 05 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins first Sunday in September; ends first Sunday in April

Administrative divisions

14 regions; Erongo, Hardap, //Karas, Kavango East, Kavango West, Khomas, Kunene, Ohangwena, Omaheke, Omusati, Oshana, Oshikoto, Otjozondjupa, Zambezi; note - the Karas Region was renamed //Karas in September 2013 to include the alveolar lateral click of the Khoekhoegowab language


21 March 1990 (from South African mandate)

National holiday

Independence Day, 21 March (1990)


drafted 9 February 1990, signed 16 March 1990, entered into force 21 March 1990; amended 1998, 2010, 2014 (2016)

Legal system

mixed legal system of uncodified civil law based on Roman-Dutch law and customary law

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction


citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Namibia
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years


18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Hage GEINGOB (since 21 March 2015); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Hage GEINGOB (since 21 March 2015); Prime Minister Saara KUUGONGELWA-AMADHILA (since 21 March 2015)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from among members of the National Assembly
elections/appointments: president elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 28 November 2014 (next to be held in November 2019)
election results: Hage GEINGOB elected president; percent of vote - Hage GEINGOB (SWAPO) 86.7%, McHenry VENAANI (DTA) 5.0%, Hidipo HAMUTENYA (RDP) 3.4%, Asser MBAI (NUDO)1.9%, Henk MUDGE (RP) 1.0%, other 2.0%

Legislative branch

description: bicameral Parliament consists of the National Assembly (104 seats; 96 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms and 8 nonvoting members appointed by the president) and the National Council, which primarily reviews legislation passed and referred by the National Assembly (26 seats (to be expanded to 42 in 2016); members indirectly elected 2 each by the 13 regional councils to serve 5-year terms)
elections: National Council - elections for regional councils to determine members of the National Council held on 27 November 2015 (next to be held in November 2020); National Assembly - last held on 28 November 2014 (next to be held in November 2019)
election results: National Council - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - SWAPO 40, NUDO 1, DTA 1; National Assembly - percent of vote by party - SWAPO 80.0%, DTA 4.8%, RDP 3.5%, APP 2.3%, UDF 2.1%, NUDO 2.0%, CPN 1.5%, other 3.8%; seats by party - SWAPO 77, DTA 5, RDP 3, APP 2, UDF 2, NUDO 2, CPN 2, SWANU 1, UPM 1, RP 1

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice and at least 3 judges in quorum sessions)
judge selection and term of office: judges appointed by the president of Namibia upon the recommendation of the Judicial Service Commission; judges serve until age 65 but can be extended by the president until age 70
subordinate courts: High Court; Labor Court; regional and district magistrates' courts; community courts

Political parties and leaders

All People's Party or APP [Ignatius SHIXWAMENI]
Communist Party of Namibia or CPN (formerly known as Workers' Revolutionary Party or WRP) [Attie BEUKES and Harry BOESAK]
Democratic Turnhalle Alliance of Namibia or DTA [McHenry VENAANI]
National Unity Democratic Organization or NUDO [Asser MBAI]
Rally for Democracy and Progress or RDP [Jeremiah NAMBINGA]
Republican Party or RP [Henk MUDGE]
South West Africa National Union or SWANU [Usutuaije MAAMBERUA]
South West Africa People's Organization or SWAPO [Hage GEINGOB, acting president]
United Democratic Front or UDF [Justus ||GAROEB]
United People's Movement or UPM [Jan J. VAN WYK]

Political pressure groups and leaders

National Society for Human Rights or NAMRIGHTS
The Affirmative Repositioning Movement or AR [Job AMUPANDA, Dimbulukweni NAUYOMA, George KAMBALA]
other: various labor unions

International organization participation


Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Martin ANDJABA (since 3 September 2010)
chancery: 1605 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 986-0540
FAX: [1] (202) 986-0443

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Thomas Frederick DAUGHTON (since 6 October 2014)
embassy: 14 Lossen Street, Windhoek
mailing address: Private Bag 12029 Ausspannplatz, Windhoek
telephone: [264] (61) 295-8500
FAX: [264] (61) 295-8603

Flag description

a wide red stripe edged by narrow white stripes divides the flag diagonally from lower hoist corner to upper fly corner; the upper hoist-side triangle is blue and charged with a yellow, 12-rayed sunburst; the lower fly-side triangle is green; red signifies the heroism of the people and their determination to build a future of equal opportunity for all; white stands for peace, unity, tranquility, and harmony; blue represents the Namibian sky and the Atlantic Ocean, the country's precious water resources and rain; the yellow sun denotes power and existence; green symbolizes vegetation and agricultural resources

National symbol(s)

oryx (antelope); national colors: blue, red, green, white, yellow

National anthem

name: "Namibia, Land of the Brave"
lyrics/music: Axali DOESEB
note: adopted 1991


Economy - overview

The economy is heavily dependent on the extraction and processing of minerals for export. Mining accounts for 11.5% of GDP, but provides more than 50% of foreign exchange earnings. Rich alluvial diamond deposits make Namibia a primary source for gem-quali

Namibia is the world's fifth-largest producer of uranium. The Chinese owned Husab uranium mine in expected to start producing uranium ore in 2017. Once the Husab mine reaches full production, Namibia is expected to become the world’s second-largest produc

Namibia normally imports about 50% of its cereal requirements; in drought years food shortages can be a problem in rural areas. A high per capita GDP, relative to the region, hides one of the world's most unequal income distributions. A priority of the cu

A five-year, Millennium Challenge Corporation compact ended in September 2014. As an upper middle income country, Namibia is ineligible for a second compact. The Namibian economy is closely linked to South Africa with the Namibian dollar pegged one-to-one

GDP (purchasing power parity)

$27.04 billion (2016 est.)
$25.94 billion (2015 est.)
$24.63 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)

$10.18 billion (2015 est.)

GDP - real growth rate

4.2% (2016 est.)
5.3% (2015 est.)
6.5% (2014 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP)

$11,800 (2016 est.)
$11,400 (2015 est.)
$11,000 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars

Gross national saving

16.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
21.2% of GDP (2015 est.)
22.3% of GDP (2014 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 63.5%
government consumption: 26.5%
investment in fixed capital: 36.9%
investment in inventories: -1.6%
exports of goods and services: 45.8%
imports of goods and services: -71.1% (2016 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 5.5%
industry: 29%
services: 65.6% (2016 est.)

Agriculture - products

millet, sorghum, peanuts, grapes; livestock; fish


meatpacking, fish processing, dairy products, pasta, beverages; mining (diamonds, lead, zinc, tin, silver, tungsten, uranium, copper)

Industrial production growth rate

4.6% (2016 est.)

Labor force

1.21 million (2016 est.)

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 31%
industry: 14%
services: 54%
note: about half of Namibia's people are unemployed while about two-thirds live in rural areas; roughly two-thirds of rural dwellers rely on subsistence agriculture (2013 est.)

Unemployment rate

28.1% (2014 est.)
29.6% (2013 est.)

Population below poverty line

28.7% (2010 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 2.4%
highest 10%: 42% (2010)

Distribution of family income - Gini index

59.7 (2010)
70.7 (2003)


revenues: $3.818 billion
expenditures: $4.408 billion (2016 est.)

Taxes and other revenues

37.5% of GDP (2016 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

-5.8% of GDP (2016 est.)

Public debt

35.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
34.1% of GDP (2015 est.)

Fiscal year

1 April - 31 March

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

6.8% (2016 est.)
3.4% (2015 est.)

Central bank discount rate

6.75% (17 February 2016)
6.5% (31 December 2015)

Commercial bank prime lending rate

9.8% (31 December 2016 est.)
7.41% (31 December 2015 est.)

Stock of narrow money

$2.507 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$2.583 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

Stock of broad money

$7.496 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$6.574 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

Stock of domestic credit

$4.837 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$4.904 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares

$1.305 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$1.152 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$1.176 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Current account balance

-$1.268 billion (2016 est.)
-$1.489 billion (2015 est.)


$4.185 billion (2016 est.)
$4.015 billion (2015 est.)

Exports - commodities

diamonds, copper, gold, zinc, lead, uranium; cattle, white fish and mollusks


$6.888 billion (2016 est.)
$6.914 billion (2015 est.)

Imports - commodities

foodstuffs; petroleum products and fuel, machinery and equipment, chemicals

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$1.762 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.69 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

Debt - external

$6.515 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$6.124 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home


Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad


Exchange rates

Namibian dollars (NAD) per US dollar -
16.15 (2016 est.)
12.7589 (2015 est.)
12.7589 (2014 est.)
10.8526 (2013 est.)
8.2 (2012 est.)


Natural gas - exports

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Electricity - access

population without electricity: 1,600,000
electrification - total population: 32%
electrification - urban areas: 50%
electrification - rural areas: 17% (2013)

Electricity - production

1.5 billion kWh (2014 est.)

Electricity - consumption

3.7 billion kWh (2014 est.)

Electricity - exports

84 million kWh (2014 est.)

Electricity - imports

2.9 billion kWh (2014 est.)

Electricity - installed generating capacity

500,000 kW (2014 est.)

Electricity - from fossil fuels

31.8% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)

Electricity - from nuclear fuels

0% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants

68.2% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)

Electricity - from other renewable sources

0% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)

Crude oil - production

0 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Crude oil - exports

0 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Crude oil - imports

0 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Crude oil - proved reserves

0 bbl (1 January 2016 es)

Refined petroleum products - production

0 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - consumption

24,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)

Refined petroleum products - exports

79.56 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - imports

23,400 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Natural gas - production

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - consumption

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - imports

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves

62.29 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy

4 million Mt (2013 est.)


Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 182,507
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 8 (July 2015 est.)

Telephones - mobile cellular

total: 2.443 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 110 (July 2012 est.)

Telephone system

general assessment: good system; core fiber-optic network links most centers with digital connections
domestic: multiple mobile-cellular providers with a combined subscribership of about 110 telephones per 100 persons
international: country code - 264; fiber-optic cable to South Africa, microwave radio relay link to Botswana, direct links to other neighboring countries; connected to the South African Far East submarine cable through South Africa; connected to the West Africa Cable Sy (2015)

Broadcast media

1 private and 1 state-run TV station; satellite and cable TV service available; state-run radio service broadcasts in multiple languages; about a dozen private radio stations; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters available (2007)

Internet country code


Internet users

total: 493,000
percent of population: 22.3% (July 2015 est.)


National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 2
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 12
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 553,322
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 30,302,405 mt-km (2015)

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

V5 (2016)


112 (2013)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 19
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 12
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 93
1,524 to 2,437 m: 25
914 to 1,523 m: 52
under 914 m: 16 (2013)


total: 2,628 km
narrow gauge: 2,628 km 1.067-m gauge (2014)


total: 44,138 km
paved: 6,387 km
unpaved: 37,751 km (2010)

Merchant marine

total: 1
by type: cargo 1 (2010)

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Luderitz, Walvis Bay


Military branches

Namibian Defense Force (NDF): Army, Navy, Air Force (2013)

Military service age and obligation

18 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription (2012)

Military expenditures

4.2% of GDP (2015)
3.11% of GDP (2012)
3.38% of GDP (2011)
3.11% of GDP (2010)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

concerns from international experts and local populations over the Okavango Delta ecology in Botswana and human displacement scuttled Namibian plans to construct a hydroelectric dam on Popa Falls along the Angola-Namibia border; the governments of South Africa and Namibia have not signed or ratified the text of the 1994 Surveyor's General agreement placing the boundary in the middle of the Orange River; Namibia has supported, and in 2004 Zimbabwe dropped objections to, plans between Botswana and Zambia to build a bridge over the Zambezi River, thereby de facto recognizing a short, but not clearly delimited, Botswana-Zambia boundary in the river

Trafficking in persons

current situation: Namibia is a country of origin and destination for children and, to a lesser extent, women subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; victims, lured by promises of legitimate jobs, are forced to work in urban centers and on commercial farms; traffickers exploit Namibian children, as well as children from Angola, Zambia, and Zimbabwe, for forced labor in agriculture, cattle herding, domestic service, fishing, and street vending; children are also forced into prostitution, often catering to tourists from southern Africa and Europe; San and Zemba children are particularly vulnerable; foreign adults and Namibian adults and children are reportedly subjected to forced labor in Chinese-owned retail, construction, and fishing operations
tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List – Namibia does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; Namibia was granted a waiver from an otherwise required downgrade to Tier 3 because its government has a written plan that, if implemented would constitute making significant efforts to bring itself into compliance with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; in 2015, the Child Care and Protection Bill passed, criminalizing child trafficking; the government’s first sex trafficking prosecution remained pending; no new prosecutions were initiated and no trafficking offenders have ever been convicted; accusations of forced labor at Chinese construction and mining companies continue to go uninvestigated; authorities failed to fully implement victim identification and referral processes, which led to the deportation of possible victims (2015)