The use of the name Crna Gora or Black Mountain (Montenegro) began in the 13th century in reference to a highland region in the Serbian province of Zeta. The later medieval state of Zeta maintained its existence until 1496 when Montenegro finally fell under Ottoman rule. Over subsequent centuries, Montenegro managed to maintain a level of autonomy within the Ottoman Empire. From the 16th to 19th centuries, Montenegro was a theocracy ruled by a series of bishop princes; in 1852, it transformed into a secular principality. Montenegro was recognized as an independent sovereign principality at the Congress of Berlin in 1878. After World War I, during which Montenegro fought on the side of the Allies, Montenegro was absorbed by the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes, which became the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1929; at the conclusion of World War II, it became a constituent republic of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. When the latter dissolved in 1992, Montenegro federated with Serbia, creating the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and, after 2003, shifting to a looser State Union of Serbia and Montenegro. In May 2006, Montenegro invoked its right under the Constitutional Charter of Serbia and Montenegro to hold a referendum on independence from the state union. The vote for severing ties with Serbia barely exceeded 55% - the threshold set by the EU - allowing Montenegro to formally restore its independence on 3 June 2006.



Southeastern Europe, between the Adriatic Sea and Serbia

Geographic coordinates

42 30 N, 19 18 E

Map references



total: 13,812 sq km
land: 13,452 sq km
water: 360 sq km

Area - comparative

slightly smaller than Connecticut

Land boundaries

total: 680 km
border countries (5): Albania 186 km, Bosnia and Herzegovina 242 km, Croatia 19 km, Kosovo 76 km, Serbia 157 km


293.5 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm
continental shelf: defined by treaty


Mediterranean climate, hot dry summers and autumns and relatively cold winters with heavy snowfalls inland


highly indented coastline with narrow coastal plain backed by rugged high limestone mountains and plateaus


mean elevation: 1,086 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
highest point: Bobotov Kuk 2,522 m

Natural resources

bauxite, hydroelectricity

Land use

agricultural land: 38.2%
arable land 12.9%; permanent crops 1.2%; permanent pasture 24.1%
forest: 40.4%
other: 21.4% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land

24 sq km (2012)

Natural hazards

destructive earthquakes

Environment - current issues

pollution of coastal waters from sewage outlets, especially in tourist-related areas such as Kotor

Environment - international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note

strategic location along the Adriatic coast

People and Society


644,578 (July 2016 est.)


noun: Montenegrin(s)
adjective: Montenegrin

Ethnic groups

Montenegrin 45%, Serbian 28.7%, Bosniak 8.7%, Albanian 4.9%, Muslim 3.3%, Roma 1%, Croat 1%, other 2.6%, unspecified 4.9% (2011 est.)


Serbian 42.9%, Montenegrin (official) 37%, Bosnian 5.3%, Albanian 5.3%, Serbo-Croat 2%, other 3.5%, unspecified 4% (2011 est.)


Orthodox 72.1%, Muslim 19.1%, Catholic 3.4%, atheist 1.2%, other 1.5%, unspecified 2.6% (2011 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 15.13% (male 47,983/female 49,527)
15-24 years: 9.92% (male 29,003/female 34,907)
25-54 years: 46.83% (male 163,055/female 138,792)
55-64 years: 13.37% (male 42,998/female 43,168)
65 years and over: 14.76% (male 38,014/female 57,131) (2016 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 47.7%
youth dependency ratio: 27.6%
elderly dependency ratio: 20.2%
potential support ratio: 5% (2015 est.)

Median age

total: 40.2 years
male: 39.3 years
female: 41.3 years (2016 est.)

Population growth rate

-0.35% (2016 est.)

Birth rate

10.2 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)

Death rate

9.6 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)

Population distribution

highest population density is concentrated in the south, southwest; the extreme eastern border is the least populated area


urban population: 64% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 0.34% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population

PODGORICA (capital) 165,000 (2014)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.83 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.17 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.66 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2016 est.)

Child labor - children ages 5-14

total number: 8,520
percentage: 10% (2005 est.)

Maternal mortality rate

7 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

39.4% (2005/06)

Health expenditures

6.4% of GDP (2014)

Physicians density

2.11 physicians/1,000 population (2013)

Hospital bed density

4 beds/1,000 population (2011)

Drinking water source

urban: 100% of population
rural: 99.2% of population
total: 99.7% of population
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0.8% of population
total: 0.3% of population (2015 est.)

Sanitation facility access

urban: 98% of population
rural: 92.2% of population
total: 95.9% of population
urban: 2% of population
rural: 7.8% of population
total: 4.1% of population (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate


HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS


HIV/AIDS - deaths


Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: intermediate
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea
vectorborne disease: Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (2016)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

21.4% (2014)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

1% (2013)

Education expenditures



definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98.7%
male: 99.5%
female: 98% (2015 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 15 years
male: 15 years
female: 15 years (2010)

Mother's mean age at first birth

26.3 (2010 est.)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24

total: 41.1%
male: 42.3%
female: 39.7% (2012 est.)


Country name

conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Montenegro
local long form: none
local short form: Crna Gora
former: People's Republic of Montenegro, Socialist Republic of Montenegro, Republic of Montenegro
etymology: the country's name locally as well as in most Western European languages means "black mountain" and refers to the dark coniferous forests on Mount Lovcen and the surrounding area

Government type

parliamentary republic


name: Podgorica; note - Cetinje retains the status of "Old Royal Capital"
geographic coordinates: 42 26 N, 19 16 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1 hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative divisions

23 municipalities (opstine, singular - opstina); Andrijevica, Bar, Berane, Bijelo Polje, Budva, Cetinje, Danilovgrad, Gusinje, Herceg Novi, Kolasin, Kotor, Mojkovac, Niksic, Petnijica, Plav, Pljevlja, Pluzine, Podgorica, Rozaje, Savnik, Tivat, Ulcinj, Zabljak


3 June 2006 (from the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro)

National holiday

National Day, 13 July (1878, the day the Berlin Congress recognized Montenegro as the 27th independent state in the world, and 1941, the day the Montenegrins staged an uprising against Nazi occupiers and sided with the partisan Communist movement)


history: several previous; latest adopted 22 October 2007
amendments: proposed by the president of Montenegro, by the government, or by at least 25 members of the Assembly; passage of draft proposals requires two-thirds majority vote of the Assembly, followed by a public hearing; passage of draft amendments requires two-thirds majority vote of the Assembly; changes to certain constitutional articles such as sovereignty, state symbols, citizenship, and constitutional change procedures require three-fifths majority vote in a referendum; amended 2013, 2014 (2016)

Legal system

civil law

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICC jurisdiction


18 years of age; universal


citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Montenegro
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years

Executive branch

chief of state: President Filip VUJANOVIC (since 6 April 2008)
head of government: Prime Minister Dusko MARKOVIC (since 28 November 2016); note - Prime Minister Milo DJUKANOVIC resigned 26 October 2016
cabinet: Ministers act as cabinet
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 7 April 2013 (next to be held in 2018); prime minister nominated by the president, approved by the Assembly
election results: Filip VUJANOVIC reelected president; percent of vote - Filip VUJANOVIC (DPS) 51.2%, Miodrag LEKIC (independent) 48.8%%

National symbol(s)

double-headed eagle; national colors: red, gold

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Assembly or Skupstina (81 seats; members directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)
elections: last held on 16 October 2016 (next to be held by October 2020)
election results: percent of vote by party/coalition - DPS 41.4%, DF 20.3%, Key Coalition, 11.1%, DCG 10.0%, SDP 5.2%, SD 3.3%, BS, 3.2%, Albanians Decisively 1.3%, HGI .5%, other 3.7%; seats by party/coalition - DPS 36, DF 18, Key Coalition 9, DCG 8, SDP 4, SD 2, BS 2, Albanians Decisively 1, HGI 1

Political pressure groups and leaders


Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court or Vrhovni Sud (consists of the court president, deputy president, and 15 judges); Constitutional Court or Ustavni Sud (consists of the court president and 7 judges)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court president proposed by general session of the Supreme Court and elected by the Judicial Council, a 9-member body consisting of judges, lawyers designated by the Assembly, and the minister of judicial affairs; Supreme Court president elected for a single renewable, 5-year term; other judges elected by the Judicial Council for life; Constitutional Court judges - 2 proposed by the president of Montenegro and 5 by the Assembly, and elected by the Assembly; court president elected from among the court members; court president elected for 3 years, other judges 9 years
subordinate courts: Administrative Courts; Appellate Court; Commercial Courts; High Courts; basic courts

Political parties and leaders

Albanians Decisively [Genci NIMANBEGU] (includes FORCA, AA, DUA)
Albanian Alternative or AA [Nik DJELOSAJ]
Bosniak Party or BS [Rafet HUSOVIC]
Croatian Civic Initiative or HGI [Marija VUCINOVIC]
Democratic Alliance or DEMOS [Miodrag LEKIC]
Democratic Front or DF [collective leadership] (includes NOVA, PZP, DNP, RP)
Democratic Montenegro or DCG [Aleksa BECIC]
Democratic Party of Socialists or DPS [Milo DJUKANOVIC]
Democratic Union of Albanians or DUA [Mehmet ZENKA]
Key Coalition [Miodrag LEKIC] (includes DEMOS, SNP, URA]
Movement for Change or PZP [Nebojsa MEDOJEVIC]
New Democratic Power or FORCA [Nazif CUNGU]
New Serb Democracy or NOVA [Andrija MANDIC]
Social Democratic Party or SDP [Ranko KRIVOKAPIC]
Social Democrats or SD [Ivan BRAJOVIC]
Socialist People's Party or SNP [Srdjan MILIC]
United Reform Action or URA [Zarko RAKCEVIC]
Workers' Party or RP [Janko VUCINIC]

International organization participation


Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant)
chancery: 1610 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC, 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 234-6108
FAX: [1] (202) 234-6109
consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Margaret UYEHARA (since 19 February 2015)
embassy: Dzona Dzeksona 2, 81000 Podgorica, Montenegro
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [382] (0) 20 410 500
FAX: [382] (0) 20 241 358

Flag description

a red field bordered by a narrow golden-yellow stripe with the Montenegrin coat of arms centered; the arms consist of a double-headed golden eagle - symbolizing the unity of church and state - surmounted by a crown; the eagle holds a golden scepter in its right claw and a blue orb in its left; the breast shield over the eagle shows a golden lion passant on a green field in front of a blue sky; the lion is a symbol of episcopal authority and harkens back to the three and a half centuries when Montenegro was ruled as a theocracy

National anthem

name: "Oj, svijetla majska zoro" (Oh, Bright Dawn of May)
lyrics/music: Sekula DRLJEVIC/unknown, arranged by Zarko MIKOVIC
note: adopted 2004; music based on a Montenegrin folk song


Economy - overview

Montenegro's economy is transitioning to a market system. From the beginning of the privatization process in 1999 through 2015, around 85% of Montenegrin state-owned companies have been privatized, including 100% of banking, telecommunications, and oil di

Montenegro uses the euro as its domestic currency, though it is not an official member of the euro zone. In January 2007, Montenegro joined the World Bank and IMF, and in December 2011, the WTO. Montenegro began negotiations to join the EC in June, 2012,

The government recognizes the need to remove impediments in order to remain competitive and open the economy to foreign investors. The biggest foreign investors in Montenegro are Italy, Norway, Austria, Russia, Hungary and the UK. Net foreign direct inves

Montenegro is currently planning major overhauls of its road and rail networks, and possible expansions of its air transportation system. In 2014, the Government of Montenegro selected two Chinese companies to construct a 41 km-long section of the country

GDP (purchasing power parity)

$10.61 billion (2016 est.)
$10.1 billion (2015 est.)
$9.789 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)

$4.242 billion (2015 est.)

GDP - real growth rate

5.1% (2016 est.)
3.2% (2015 est.)
1.8% (2014 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP)

$17,000 (2016 est.)
$16,200 (2015 est.)
$15,700 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars

Gross national saving

5.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
5.1% of GDP (2015 est.)
4.6% of GDP (2014 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 81.8%
government consumption: 21.2%
investment in fixed capital: 19.5%
investment in inventories: -0.1%
exports of goods and services: 42.1%
imports of goods and services: -64.5% (2013 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 8.3%
industry: 21.2%
services: 70.5% (2013 est.)

Agriculture - products

tobacco, potatoes, citrus fruits, olives, grapes; sheep


steelmaking, aluminum, agricultural processing, consumer goods, tourism

Industrial production growth rate

4.5% (2013 est.)

Labor force

263,200 (2014 est.)

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 5.3%
industry: 17.9%
services: 76.8% (2014 est.)

Unemployment rate

18.5% (2014 est.)
19.1% (2013 est.)

Population below poverty line

8.6% (2013 est.)

Distribution of family income - Gini index

26.2 (2013 est.)
24.3 (2010)


revenues: $1.56 billion
expenditures: $1.63 billion (2014 est.)

Taxes and other revenues

36.8% of GDP (2014 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

-1.7% of GDP (2014 est.)

Public debt

59.5% of GDP (31 December 2014 est.)
57.9% of GDP (2013 est.)
note: data cover general government debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as int

Fiscal year

calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

0.5% (2016 est.)
1.6% (2015 est.)

Commercial bank prime lending rate

9.22% (31 December 2014 est.)
9.36% (31 December 2013 est.)

Stock of narrow money

$749 million (31 December 2011 est.)
$783.3 million (31 December 2010 est.)

Stock of broad money

$1.982 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$2.01 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Stock of domestic credit

$2.63 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$2.682 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares

$7.532 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$3.827 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$3.322 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Current account balance

-$437 million (2016 est.)
-$387 million (2015 est.)


$370.2 million (2014 est.)
$489.2 million (2012 est.)

Exports - partners

Croatia 22.7%, Serbia 22.7%, Slovenia 7.8% (2012 est.)


$1.982 billion (2014 est.)
$2.4 billion (2012 est.)

Imports - partners

Serbia 29.3%, Greece 8.7%, China 7.1% (2012 est.)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$599.6 million (31 December 2014 est.)

Debt - external

$1.576 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$1.433 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home

$483 million (31 December 2014 est.)
$446.5 million (31 December 2013 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad

$133 million (31 December 2014 est.)

Exchange rates

euros (EUR) per US dollar -
0.9214 (2016 est.)
0.885 (2015 est.)
0.885 (2014 est.)
0.7634 (2013 est.)
0.78 (2012 est.)


Natural gas - production

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Electricity - access

electrification - total population: 100% (2016)

Electricity - production

3.1 billion kWh (2014 est.)

Electricity - consumption

2.8 billion kWh (2014 est.)

Electricity - exports

600 million kWh (2014 est.)

Electricity - imports

900 million kWh (2014 est.)

Electricity - installed generating capacity

900,000 kW (2014 est.)

Electricity - from fossil fuels

24.6% of total installed capacity (20113 est.)

Electricity - from nuclear fuels

0% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants

75.3% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)

Electricity - from other renewable sources

0% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)

Crude oil - production

0 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Crude oil - exports

0 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Crude oil - imports

0 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Crude oil - proved reserves

0 bbl (1 January 2016 es)

Refined petroleum products - production

0 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - consumption

6,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)

Refined petroleum products - exports

622 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - imports

5,987 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Natural gas - consumption

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - exports

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - imports

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves

0 cu m (1 January 2014)

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy

18 million Mt (2013 est.)


Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 154,448
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 24 (July 2015 est.)

Telephones - mobile cellular

total: 1.008 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 156 (July 2015 est.)

Telephone system

general assessment: modern telecommunications system with access to European satellites
domestic: GSM mobile-cellular service, available through multiple providers with national coverage, is growing
international: country code - 382; 2 international switches connect the national system (2015)

Broadcast media

state-funded national radio-TV broadcaster operates 2 terrestrial TV networks, 1 satellite TV channel, and 2 radio networks; 4 public TV stations and some 20 private TV stations; 14 local public radio stations and more than 40 private radio stations (2007)

Internet country code


Internet users

total: 418,000
percent of population: 64.6% (July 2015 est.)


National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 1
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 6
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 526,980
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 0 mt-km (2015)

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

4O (2016)


5 (2013)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2013)


1 (2012)


total: 250 km
standard gauge: 250 km 1.435-m gauge (169 km electrified) (2014)


total: 7,762 km
paved: 7,141 km
unpaved: 621 km (2010)

Merchant marine

total: 2
by type: cargo 1, passenger/cargo 1
registered in other countries: 4 (Bahamas 2, Honduras 1, Slovakia 1) (2010)

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Bar


Military branches

Armed Forces of the Republic of Montenegro: Army of Montenegro (includes Montenegrin Navy (Mornarica Crne Gore, MCG)), Air Force (2011)

Military service age and obligation

18 is the legal minimum age for voluntary military service; no conscription (2012)

Military expenditures

1.65% of GDP (2015)
1.74% of GDP (2014)
1.59% of GDP (2013)
1.69% of GDP (2012)
1.75% of GDP (2011)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international


Refugees and internally displaced persons

stateless persons: 3,262 (2015)