The Genoese built a fortress on the site of present day Monaco in 1215. The current ruling GRIMALDI family first seized temporary control in 1297, and again in 1331, but was not able to permanently secure its holding until 1419. Economic development was spurred in the late 19th century with a railroad linkup to France and the opening of a casino. Since then, the principality's mild climate, splendid scenery, and gambling facilities have made Monaco world famous as a tourist and recreation center.



Western Europe, bordering the Mediterranean Sea on the southern coast of France, near the border with Italy

Geographic coordinates

43 44 N, 7 24 E

Map references



total: 2 sq km
land: 2 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative

about three times the size of the National Mall in Washington, DC

Land boundaries

total: 6 km
border countries (1): France 6 km


4.1 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 12 nm


Mediterranean with mild, wet winters and hot, dry summers


hilly, rugged, rocky


mean elevation: NA
elevation extremes: lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m
highest point: Mont Agel 140 m

Natural resources


Land use

agricultural land: 1%
arable land 0%; permanent crops 1%; permanent pasture 0%
forest: 0%
other: 99% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land

0 sq km (2012)

Natural hazards


Environment - current issues


Environment - international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note

second-smallest independent state in the world (after the Holy See); smallest country with a coastline; almost entirely urban

People and Society

Ethnic groups

French (official) 47%, Monegasque 16%, Italian 16%, other 21%


30,581 (July 2016 est.)
note: immigrants make up more than 55% of the total population, according to UN data (2015)


noun: Monegasque(s) or Monacan(s)
adjective: Monegasque or Monacan


French (official), English, Italian, Monegasque


Roman Catholic 90% (official), other 10%

Birth rate

6.6 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 11.08% (male 1,744/female 1,644)
15-24 years: 9.13% (male 1,439/female 1,352)
25-54 years: 33.68% (male 5,162/female 5,137)
55-64 years: 14.79% (male 2,253/female 2,270)
65 years and over: 31.33% (male 4,269/female 5,311) (2016 est.)

Median age

total: 52.4 years
male: 51.1 years
female: 53.7 years (2016 est.)

Population growth rate

0.18% (2016 est.)

Death rate

9.6 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)

Net migration rate

4.7 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)

Population distribution

the most densely populated country in the world; its entire population living on 2 square km


urban population: 100% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 0.79% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population

MONACO (capital) 38,000 (2014)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.81 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2016 est.)

Infant mortality rate

total: 1.8 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 2.1 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 1.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)

Total fertility rate

1.53 children born/woman (2016 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 89.5 years
male: 85.6 years
female: 93.5 years (2016 est.)

Health expenditures

4.3% of GDP (2014)

Physicians density

7.17 physicians/1,000 population (2012)

Hospital bed density

13.8 beds/1,000 population (2012)

Drinking water source

urban: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
urban: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)

Sanitation facility access

urban: 100% of population
rural: NA
total: 100% of population
urban: 0% of population
rural: NA
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate


HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS


HIV/AIDS - deaths


Education expenditures

1% of GDP (2014)


Country name

conventional long form: Principality of Monaco
conventional short form: Monaco
local long form: Principaute de Monaco
local short form: Monaco
etymology: founded as a Greek colony in the 6th century B.C., the name derives from two Greek words "monos" (single, alone) and "oikos" (house) to convey the sense of a people "living apart" or in a "single habitation"

Government type

constitutional monarchy


name: Monaco
geographic coordinates: 43 44 N, 7 25 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative divisions

none; there are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US Government, but there are 4 quarters (quartiers, singular - quartier); Fontvieille, La Condamine, Monaco-Ville, Monte-Carlo; note - Moneghetti, a part of La Condamine, is sometimes called the 5th quarter of Monaco


1419 (beginning of permanent rule by the House of GRIMALDI)

National holiday

National Day (Saint Rainier's Day), 19 November (1857)


history: previous 1911 (suspended 1959); latest adopted 17 December 1962
amendments: proposed by joint agreement of the chief of state (the prince) and the National Council; passage requires two-thirds majority vote of National Council members; amended 2002 (2016)

Legal system

civil law system influenced by French legal tradition

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt


citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Monaco; in the case of a child born out of wedlock, the mother must be a citizen and father unknown
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years


18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: Prince ALBERT II (since 6 April 2005)
head of government: Minister of State Serge TELLE (since 1 February 2016)
cabinet: Council of Government under the authority of the monarch
elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; minister of state appointed by the monarch from a list of three French national candidates presented by the French Government

Legislative branch

description: unicameral National Council or Conseil National (24 seats; 16 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 8 directly elected by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)
elections: last held on 10 February 2013 (next to be held in February 2018)
election results: percent of vote by party - Horizon Monaco 50.3%, Union Monegasque 39%, Renaissance 10.7%; seats by party - Horizon Monaco 20, Union Monegasque 3, Renaissance 1

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of 5 permanent members and 2 substitutes)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court members appointed by the monarch upon the proposals of the National Council, State Council, Crown Council, Court of Appeal, and Trial Court
subordinate courts: Court of Appeal; Civil Court of First Instance

Political parties and leaders

Horizon Monaco [Laurent NOUVION]
Renaissance [SBM (public corporation)]
Union Monegasque [Jean-Francois ROBILLON]

Political pressure groups and leaders


International organization participation

CD, CE, FAO, IAEA, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IFRCS, IHO, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ITSO, ITU, OAS (observer), OIF, OPCW, OSCE, Schengen Convention (de facto member), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Maguy MACCARIO-DOYLE (since 3 December 2013)
chancery: 3400 International Drive NW, Suite 2K-100, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: (202) 234-1530
FAX: (202) 244-7656
consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US

the US does not have an embassy in Monaco; the US Ambassador to France is accredited to Monaco; the US Consul General in Marseille (France), under the authority of the US ambassador to France, handles diplomatic and consular matters concerning Monaco

Flag description

two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; the colors are those of the ruling House of Grimaldi and have been in use since 1339, making the flag one of the world's oldest national banners
note: similar to the flag of Indonesia which is longer and the flag of Poland which is white (top) and red

National symbol(s)

red and white lozenges (diamond shapes); national colors: red, white

National anthem

name: "A Marcia de Muneghu" (The March of Monaco)
lyrics/music: Louis NOTARI/Charles ALBRECHT
note: music adopted 1867, lyrics adopted 1931; although French is commonly spoken, only the Monegasque lyrics are official; the French version is known as "Hymne Monegasque" (Monegasque Anthem); the words are generally only sung on official occasions


Population below poverty line


Economy - overview

Monaco, bordering France on the Mediterranean coast, is a popular resort, attracting tourists to its casino and pleasant climate. The principality also is a banking center and has successfully sought to diversify into services and small, high-value-added,

The state has no income tax and low business taxes and thrives as a tax haven both for individuals who have established residence and for foreign companies that have set up businesses and offices. Monaco, however, is not a tax-free shelter; it charges nea

Monaco's reliance on tourism and banking for its economic growth has left it vulnerable to a downturn in France and other European economies which are the principality's main trade partners. In 2009, Monaco's GDP fell by 11.5% as the euro-zone crisis prec

GDP (purchasing power parity)

$6.79 billion (2013 est.)
$6.213 billion (2012 est.)
$5.748 billion (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2012 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)

$6.063 billion (2013 est.)

GDP - real growth rate

9.3% (2013 est.)
1.2% (2012 est.)
7% (2011 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP)

$78,700 (2013 est.)
$73,200 (2012 est.)
$72,600 (2011 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 0%
industry: 14%
services: 86% (2013)

Agriculture - products



banking, insurance, tourism, construction, small-scale industrial and consumer products

Industrial production growth rate

20% (2013)

Labor force

note: includes all foreign workers (2014 est.)

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 0%
industry: 16.1%
services: 83.9% (2012 est.)

Unemployment rate

2% (2012)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%


revenues: $914.5 million
expenditures: $973 million (2011 est.)

Taxes and other revenues

17.7% of GDP (2011 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

-1.1% of GDP (2011 est.)

Fiscal year

calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

1.5% (2010)

Market value of publicly traded shares



$1.115 billion (2011)
$684.9 million (2010)
note: full customs integration with France, which collects and rebates Monegasque trade duties; also participates in EU market system through customs union with France

Exports - partners

Europe 73.2%, Africa 14.6%, America 5.2%, Asia 4.9% (2013 est.)


$1.162 billion (2011)
$850.2 million (2010)
note: full customs integration with France, which collects and rebates Monegasque trade duties; also participates in EU market system through customs union with France

Imports - partners

Europe 70.4%, Asia 20.8%, America 4.4%, Africa 4.1% (2013 est.)

Debt - external


Exchange rates

euros (EUR) per US dollar -
0.9214 (2016 est.)
0.885 (2015 est.)
0.885 (2014 est.)
0.7634 (2013 est.)
0.78 (2012 est.)


Electricity - access

electrification - total population: 100% (2016)


Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 49,085
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 130 (July 2015 est.)

Telephones - mobile cellular

total: 34,000
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 90 (July 2015 est.)

Telephone system

general assessment: modern automatic telephone system; the country's sole fixed-line operator offers a full range of services to residential and business customers
domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity exceeds 200 per 100 persons
international: country code - 377; no satellite earth stations; connected by cable into the French communications system (2015)

Broadcast media

TV Monte-Carlo operates a TV network; cable TV available; Radio Monte-Carlo has extensive radio networks in France and Italy with French-language broadcasts to France beginning in the 1960s and Italian-language broadcasts to Italy beginning in the 1970s; (2012)

Internet country code


Internet users

total: 35,000
percent of population: 93.4% (July 2015 est.)


Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

3A (2016)


1 (2012)


total: 77 km
paved: 77 km (2010)

Merchant marine

registered in other countries: 64 (Bahamas 8, Bermuda 2, Liberia 8, Malta 3, Marshall Islands 30, Panama 11, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 2) (2010)

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Monaco


Military branches

no regular military forces; Directorate of Public Security (2012)

Military - note

defense is the responsibility of France

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international