Founded in 963, Luxembourg became a grand duchy in 1815 and an independent state under the Netherlands. It lost more than half of its territory to Belgium in 1839 but gained a larger measure of autonomy. Full independence was attained in 1867. Overrun by Germany in both world wars, it ended its neutrality in 1948 when it entered into the Benelux Customs Union and when it joined NATO the following year. In 1957, Luxembourg became one of the six founding countries of the EEC (later the EU), and in 1999 it joined the euro currency area.



Western Europe, between France and Germany

Geographic coordinates

49 45 N, 6 10 E

Map references



total: 2,586 sq km
land: 2,586 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative

slightly smaller than Rhode Island

Land boundaries

total: 327 km
border countries (3): Belgium 130 km, France 69 km, Germany 128 km


0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims

none (landlocked)


modified continental with mild winters, cool summers


mostly gently rolling uplands with broad, shallow valleys; uplands to slightly mountainous in the north; steep slope down to Moselle flood plain in the southeast


mean elevation: 325 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Moselle River 133 m
highest point: Buurgplaatz 559 m

Natural resources

iron ore (no longer exploited), arable land

Land use

agricultural land: 50.7%
arable land 24%; permanent crops 0.6%; permanent pasture 26.1%
forest: 33.5%
other: 15.8% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land

0 sq km (2012)

Natural hazards


Environment - current issues

air and water pollution in urban areas, soil pollution of farmland

Environment - international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification

Geography - note

landlocked; the only grand duchy in the world

People and Society


582,291 (July 2016 est.)


noun: Luxembourger(s)
adjective: Luxembourg

Ethnic groups

Luxembourger 54.1%, Portuguese 16.4%, French 7%, Italian 3.5%, Belgian 3.3%, German 2.3%, British 1.1%, other 12.3%
note: represents population by nationality (2015 est.)


Luxembourgish (official administrative and judicial language and national language (spoken vernacular)) 88.8%, French (official administrative, judicial, and legislative language) 4.2%, Portuguese 2.3%, German (official administrative and judicial language) 1.1%, other 3.5% (2011 est.)


Roman Catholic 87%, other (includes Protestant, Jewish, and Muslim) 13% (2000)

Age structure

0-14 years: 16.82% (male 50,445/female 47,525)
15-24 years: 12.26% (male 36,578/female 34,788)
25-54 years: 44.34% (male 132,434/female 125,748)
55-64 years: 11.63% (male 34,321/female 33,379)
65 years and over: 14.95% (male 38,614/female 48,459) (2016 est.)

Health expenditures

6.6% of GDP (2014)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 43.7%
youth dependency ratio: 23.6%
elderly dependency ratio: 20.1%
potential support ratio: 5% (2015 est.)

Median age

total: 39.2 years
male: 38.6 years
female: 39.9 years (2016 est.)

Population growth rate

2.05% (2016 est.)

Birth rate

11.4 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)

Death rate

7.3 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)

Net migration rate

16.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)

Population distribution

most people live in the south, on or near the border with France


urban population: 90.2% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 1.71% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population

LUXEMBOURG (capital) 107,000 (2014)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2016 est.)

Maternal mortality rate

10 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)

Infant mortality rate

total: 3.4 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 3.8 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 3 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 82.3 years
male: 79.8 years
female: 84.9 years (2016 est.)

Total fertility rate

1.61 children born/woman (2016 est.)

Physicians density

2.9 physicians/1,000 population (2013)

Hospital bed density

5.4 beds/1,000 population (2010)

Drinking water source

urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)

Sanitation facility access

urban: 97.5% of population
rural: 98.5% of population
total: 97.6% of population
urban: 2.5% of population
rural: 1.5% of population
total: 2.4% of population (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate


HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS


HIV/AIDS - deaths


Obesity - adult prevalence rate

24.8% (2014)

Education expenditures

4.1% of GDP (2012)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 14 years
male: 14 years
female: 14 years (2012)

Mother's mean age at first birth

30.2 (2012 est.)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24

total: 22.6%
male: 26.1%
female: 18.1% (2014 est.)


Country name

conventional long form: Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
conventional short form: Luxembourg
local long form: Grand Duchee de Luxembourg
local short form: Luxembourg
etymology: from the Celtic "lucilem" (little) and the German "burg" (castle or fortress) to produce the meaning of the "little castle"

Government type

constitutional monarchy


name: Luxembourg
geographic coordinates: 49 36 N, 6 07 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative divisions

12 cantons (cantons, singular - canton); Capellen, Clervaux, Diekirch, Echternach, Esch-sur-Alzette, Grevenmacher, Luxembourg, Mersch, Redange, Remich, Vianden, Wiltz


1839 (from the Netherlands)

National holiday

National Day (birthday of Grand Duke Henri) 23 June; note - this date of birth is not the true date of birth for any of the Royals, but the festivities were shifted to allow observance during a more favorable time of year


history: previous 1842 (heavily amended 1848, 1856); latest effective 17 October 1868
amendments: adoption requires at least two-thirds vote by the Chamber of Deputies in two successive readings three months apart; a referendum can be substituted for the second reading if voted for by more than one-quarter of the Chamber members or by 25,000 valid voters; adoption by referendum requires a majority of all valid voters; amended many times, last in 2009 (2016)

Legal system

civil law system

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; accepts ICCt jurisdiction


citizenship by birth: limited to situations where the parents are either unknown, stateless, or when the nationality law of the parents' state of origin does not permit acquisition of citizenship by descent when the birth occurs outside of national territory
citizenship by descent: at least one parent must be a citizen of Luxembourg
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 7 years


18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch

chief of state: Grand Duke HENRI (since 7 October 2000); Heir Apparent Prince GUILLAUME (son of the monarch, born 11 November 1981)
head of government: Prime Minister Xavier BETTEL (since 4 December 2013); Deputy Prime Minister Etienne SCHNEIDER (since 4 December 2013)
cabinet: Council of Ministers recommended by the prime minister, appointed by the monarch
elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; following elections to the Chamber of Deputies, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the monarch; deputy prime minister appointed by the monarch; prime minister and deputy prime minister are responsible to the Chamber of Deputies

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Chamber of Deputies or Chambre des Deputes (60 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms); note - a 21-member Council of State appointed by the Grand Duke on the advice of the prime minister serves as an advisory body to the Chamber of Deputies
elections: last held on 20 October 2013 (next to be held by June 2018)
election results: percent of vote by party - CSV 33.7%, LSAP 20.3%, DP 18.3%, Green Party 10.1%, ADR 6.6%, The Left 4.9%, other 6.1%; seats by party - CSV 23, LSAP 13, DP 13, Green Party 6, ADR 3, The Left 2

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Superior Court of Justice includes Court of Appeal and Court of Cassation (consists of 27 judges on 9 benches); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 members)
judge selection and term of office: judges of both courts appointed by the monarch for life
subordinate courts: district and local tribunals and courts

Political parties and leaders

Alternative Democratic Reform Party or ADR [Jean SCHOOS]
Christian Social People's Party or CSV [Marc SPAUTZ]
Democratic Party or DP [Corinne CAHEN]
Green Party [Francoise FOLMER and Christian KMIOTEK]
Luxembourg Socialist Workers' Party or LSAP [Claude HAAGEN]
The Left (dei Lenk/la Gauche) [Central Committee]
other minor parties

Political pressure groups and leaders

Business Federation Luxembourg or FEDIL [Nicolas BUCK, chairman]
Centrale Paysanne [Marc FISCH] (federation of agricultural producers)
Chamber of Artisans (Chambre des Metiers) [Roland KUHN]
Chamber of Commerce (Chambre de Commerce) [Carlo THELEN]
Chambre des Salaries or CSL [Jean-Claude REDING]
General Association of Officials (Confederation Generale de la Fonction Publique or CGFP [Romain WOLFF] (trade union representing civil service)
Greenpeace [Kumi NAIDOO]
LCGP [Patrick DURY] (center-right trade union)
Luxembourg Association of Bankers and Insurance Employees or ALEBA [Roberto SCOLATI]
Luxembourg Bankers Association or ABBL [Yves MAAS]
Mouvement Ecologique [Blanche WEBER] (environment protection)
OGB-L [Andre ROELTGEN] (center-left trade union)

International organization participation

ADB (nonregional member), Australia Group, Benelux, BIS, CD, CE, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNRWA, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Sylvie LUCAS (since 16 September 2016)
chancery: 2200 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 265-4171 through 72
FAX: [1] (202) 328-8270
consulate(s) general: New York, San Francisco

National symbol(s)

lion; national colors: red, white, light blue

Diplomatic representation from the US

US chief of mission: Ambassador David MCKEAN (since 14 April 2016)
embassy: 22 Boulevard Emmanuel Servais, L-2535 Luxembourg City
mailing address: American Embassy Luxembourg, Unit 1410, APO AE 09126-1410 (official mail); American Embassy Luxembourg, PSC 9, Box 9500, APO AE 09123 (personal mail)
telephone: [352] 46-01-23
FAX: [352] 46-14-01

Flag description

three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and light blue; similar to the flag of the Netherlands, which uses a darker blue and is shorter; the coloring is derived from the Grand Duke's coat of arms (a red lion on a white and blue striped field)

National anthem

name: "Ons Heemecht" (Our Motherland); "De Wilhelmus" (The William)
lyrics/music: Michel LENTZ/Jean-Antoine ZINNEN; Nikolaus WELTER/unknown
note: "Ons Heemecht," adopted 1864, is the national anthem, while "De Wilhelmus," adopted 1919, serves as a royal anthem for use when members of the grand ducal family enter or exit a ceremony in Luxembourg


Economy - overview

This small, stable, high-income economy has historically featured solid growth, low inflation, and low unemployment. The industrial sector, initially dominated by steel, has become increasingly diversified to include chemicals, machinery and equipment, ru

Luxembourg experienced uneven economic growth in the aftermath of the global economic crisis that began in late 2008. Luxembourg's GDP contracted 3.6% in 2009, but has steadily recovered since 2013. Unemployment has remained below the EU average despite h

The country continues to enjoy an extraordinarily high standard of living - GDP per capita ranks among the highest in the world and is the highest in the euro zone. Luxembourg has one of the highest current account surpluses as a share of GDP in the euro

Luxembourg has lost some of its advantage as a favorable tax location because of OECD and EU pressure. In 2015, the government’s compliance with EU requirements to implement automatic exchange of tax information on savings accounts - thus ending banking s

GDP (purchasing power parity)

$58.74 billion (2016 est.)
$56.75 billion (2015 est.)
$54.13 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)

$60.98 billion (2015 est.)

GDP - real growth rate

3.5% (2016 est.)
4.8% (2015 est.)
4.1% (2014 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP)

$102,000 (2016 est.)
$100,800 (2015 est.)
$98,400 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars

Gross national saving

23% of GDP (2016 est.)
23.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
24.8% of GDP (2014 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 27.9%
government consumption: 16.4%
investment in fixed capital: 17.5%
investment in inventories: 0.2%
exports of goods and services: 210.3%
imports of goods and services: -172.3% (2016 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 0.2%
industry: 11.1%
services: 88.7% (2016 est.)

Agriculture - products

grapes, barley, oats, potatoes, wheat, fruits; dairy and livestock products


banking and financial services, construction, real estate services, iron, metals, and steel, information technology, telecommunications, cargo transportation and logistics, chemicals, engineering, tires, glass, aluminum, tourism, biotechnology

Industrial production growth rate

1.7% (2016 est.)

Labor force

note: data exclude foreign workers; in addition to the figure for domestic labor force, about 150,000 workers commute daily from France, Belgium, and Germany (2016 est.)

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 1.1%
industry: 20%
services: 78.9% (2013 est.)

Unemployment rate

6.7% (2016 est.)
6.9% (2015 est.)

Population below poverty line


Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 3.5%
highest 10%: 23.8% (2000)

Distribution of family income - Gini index

30.4 (2013 est.)
26 (2005 est.)


revenues: $25.85 billion
expenditures: $25.52 billion (2016 est.)

Taxes and other revenues

42.4% of GDP (2016 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

0.5% of GDP (2016 est.)

Public debt

21.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
21.4% of GDP (2015 est.)
note: data cover general government debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as int

Fiscal year

calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

-0.1% (2016 est.)
0.1% (2015 est.)

Central bank discount rate

0.05% (31 December 2013)
0.3% (31 December 2010)
note: this is the European Central Bank's rate on the marginal lending facility, which offers overnight credit to banks in the euro area

Stock of narrow money

$232.6 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$218.4 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
note: see entry for the EU for money supply for the entire euro area; the European Central Bank (ECB) controls monetary policy for the 18 members of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); individual members of the EMU do not control the quantity of money circul

Stock of broad money

$281.4 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$271 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

Stock of domestic credit

$110.5 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$108.5 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares

$47.13 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$63.17 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$78.64 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

Current account balance

$2.711 billion (2016 est.)
$3.189 billion (2015 est.)


$17.1 billion (2016 est.)
$17.81 billion (2015 est.)

Exports - commodities

machinery and equipment, steel products, chemicals, rubber products, glass

Exports - partners

Germany 22.1%, Belgium 16.7%, France 16.6%, UK 4.7%, Italy 4.6%, Netherlands 4% (2015)


$18.33 billion (2016 est.)
$20.22 billion (2015 est.)

Imports - commodities

commercial aircraft, minerals, chemicals, metals, foodstuffs, luxury consumer goods

Imports - partners

Belgium 27.6%, Germany 22.9%, China 11.7%, France 9.5%, US 8.4%, Netherlands 4.2%, Mexico 4.1% (2015)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$1 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$771 million (31 December 2015 est.)

Debt - external

$3.781 trillion (31 March 2016 est.)
$3.806 trillion (31 March 2015 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home

$11.21 billion (31 December 2008 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad


Exchange rates

euros (EUR) per US dollar -
0.9214 (2016 est.)
0.885 (2015 est.)
0.885 (2014 est.)
0.7634 (2013 est.)
0.78 (2012 est.)


Electricity - access

electrification - total population: 100% (2016)

Electricity - production

1.4 billion kWh (2014 est.)

Electricity - consumption

6.2 billion kWh (2014 est.)

Electricity - exports

2.1 billion kWh (2014 est.)

Electricity - imports

7 billion kWh (2014 est.)

Electricity - installed generating capacity

2 million kW (2014 est.)

Electricity - from fossil fuels

27.5% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from nuclear fuels

0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants

1.9% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from other renewable sources

9.1% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Crude oil - production

0 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Crude oil - exports

0 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Crude oil - imports

0 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Crude oil - proved reserves

0 bbl (1 January 2016 es)

Refined petroleum products - production

0 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Refined petroleum products - consumption

56,030 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Refined petroleum products - exports

0 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Refined petroleum products - imports

55,040 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Natural gas - production

5 million cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - consumption

978 million cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - exports

0 cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - imports

973 million cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves

0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy

11 million Mt (2013 est.)


Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 276,900
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 49 (July 2015 est.)

Telephones - mobile cellular

total: 807,000
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 141 (July 2015 est.)

Telephone system

general assessment: highly developed, completely automated and efficient system, mainly buried cables
domestic: fixed-line teledensity about 50 per 100 persons; nationwide mobile-cellular telephone system with market for mobile-cellular phones virtually saturated
international: country code - 352 (2015)

Broadcast media

Luxembourg has a long tradition of operating radio and TV services for pan-European audiences and is home to Europe's largest privately owned broadcast media group, the RTL Group, which operates 46 TV stations and 29 radio stations in Europe; also home to (2008)

Internet country code


Internet users

total: 555,000
percent of population: 97.3% (July 2015 est.)


National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 3
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 119
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 1,830,972
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 6,309,473,324 mt-km (2015)

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

LX (2016)


2 (2013)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 1
over 3,047 m: 1 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2013)


1 (2013)


gas 142 km; refined products 27 km (2013)


total: 275 km
standard gauge: 275 km 1.435-m gauge (275 km electrified) (2014)


total: 2,899 km
paved: 2,899 km (includes 152 km of expressways) (2011)


37 km (on Moselle River) (2010)

Merchant marine

total: 49
by type: bulk carrier 2, cargo 3, chemical tanker 20, container 10, petroleum tanker 2, roll on/roll off 12
foreign-owned: 48 (Belgium 11, Denmark 1, France 15, Germany 9, Japan 3, Netherlands 3, Switzerland 1, UK 5)
registered in other countries: 18 (Italy 14, Malta 3, Panama 1) (2010)

Ports and terminals

river port(s): Mertert (Moselle)


Military branches

Luxembourg Army (Armee Luxembourgeoise) (2015)

Military service age and obligation

18-24 years of age for male and female voluntary military service; no conscription; Luxembourg citizen or EU citizen with 3-year residence in Luxembourg (2012)

Military expenditures

0.44% of GDP (2016)
0.43% of GDP (2015)
0.39% of GDP (2014)
0.38% of GDP (2013)
0.38% of GDP (2012)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international


Refugees and internally displaced persons

stateless persons: 82 (2015)