Once part of Spain's vast empire in the New World, Honduras became an independent nation in 1821. After two and a half decades of mostly military rule, a freely elected civilian government came to power in 1982. During the 1980s, Honduras proved a haven for anti-Sandinista contras fighting the Marxist Nicaraguan Government and an ally to Salvadoran Government forces fighting leftist guerrillas. The country was devastated by Hurricane Mitch in 1998, which killed about 5,600 people and caused approximately $2 billion in damage. Since then, the economy has slowly rebounded.



Central America, bordering the Caribbean Sea, between Guatemala and Nicaragua and bordering the Gulf of Fonseca (North Pacific Ocean), between El Salvador and Nicaragua

Geographic coordinates

15 00 N, 86 30 W

Map references

Central America and the Caribbean


total: 112,090 sq km
land: 111,890 sq km
water: 200 sq km

Area - comparative

slightly larger than Tennessee

Land boundaries

total: 1,575 km
border countries (3): Guatemala 244 km, El Salvador 391 km, Nicaragua 940 km


823 km (Caribbean Sea 669 km, Gulf of Fonseca 163 km)

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: natural extension of territory or to 200 nm


subtropical in lowlands, temperate in mountains


mostly mountains in interior, narrow coastal plains


mean elevation: 684 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: Cerro Las Minas 2,870 m

Natural resources

timber, gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, iron ore, antimony, coal, fish, hydropower

Land use

agricultural land: 28.8%
arable land 9.1%; permanent crops 4%; permanent pasture 15.7%
forest: 45.3%
other: 25.9% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land

900 sq km (2012)

Natural hazards

frequent, but generally mild, earthquakes; extremely susceptible to damaging hurricanes and floods along the Caribbean coast

Environment - current issues

urban population expanding; deforestation results from logging and the clearing of land for agricultural purposes; further land degradation and soil erosion hastened by uncontrolled development and improper land use practices such as farming of marginal lands; mining activities polluting Lago de Yojoa (the country's largest source of fresh water), as well as several rivers and streams, with heavy metals

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note

has only a short Pacific coast but a long Caribbean shoreline, including the virtually uninhabited eastern Mosquito Coast

People and Society


noun: Honduran(s)
adjective: Honduran


note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2016 est.)

Ethnic groups

mestizo (mixed Amerindian and European) 90%, Amerindian 7%, black 2%, white 1%


Spanish (official), Amerindian dialects


Roman Catholic 97%, Protestant 3%

Demographic profile

Honduras is one of the poorest countries in Latin America and has the world's highest murder rate. More than half of the population lives in poverty and per capita income is one of the lowest in the region. Poverty rates are higher among rural and indigenous people and in the south, west, and along the eastern border than in the north and central areas where most of Honduras' industries and infrastructure are concentrated. The increased productivity needed to break Honduras' persistent high poverty rate depends, in part, on further improvements in educational attainment. Although primary-school enrollment is near 100%, educational quality is poor, the drop-out rate and grade repetition remain high, and teacher and school accountability is low.
Honduras' population growth rate has slowed since the 1990s, but it remains high at nearly 2% annually because the birth rate averages approximately three children per woman and more among rural, indigenous, and poor women. Consequently, Honduras' young adult population - ages 15 to 29 - is projected to continue growing rapidly for the next three decades and then stabilize or slowly shrink. Population growth and limited job prospects outside of agriculture will continue to drive emigration. Remittances represent about a fifth of GDP.

Age structure

0-14 years: 33.55% (male 1,524,195/female 1,459,679)
15-24 years: 21.09% (male 956,315/female 918,925)
25-54 years: 36.19% (male 1,627,072/female 1,591,025)
55-64 years: 4.99% (male 207,821/female 235,776)
65 years and over: 4.19% (male 161,734/female 210,717) (2016 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 57.8%
youth dependency ratio: 50.1%
elderly dependency ratio: 7.7%
potential support ratio: 13.1% (2015 est.)

Median age

total: 22.6 years
male: 22.3 years
female: 23 years (2016 est.)

Population growth rate

1.64% (2016 est.)

Birth rate

22.8 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)

Death rate

5.2 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)

Net migration rate

-1.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)

Population distribution

most residents live in the mountainous western half of the country; unlike other Central American nations, Honduras is the only one with an urban population that is distributed between two large centers - the capital of Tegucigalpa and the city of San Pedro Sula; the Rio Ulua valley in the north is the only densely populated lowland area


urban population: 54.7% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 3.14% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population

TEGUCIGALPA (capital) 1.123 million; San Pedro Sula 852,000 (2015)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.88 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2016 est.)

Child labor - children ages 5-14

total number: 280,809
percentage: 16% (2002 est.)

Maternal mortality rate

129 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)

Infant mortality rate

total: 17.7 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 20 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 15.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 71.1 years
male: 69.5 years
female: 72.8 years (2016 est.)

Total fertility rate

2.72 children born/woman (2016 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

73.2% (2011/12)

Health expenditures

8.7% of GDP (2014)

Physicians density

0.37 physicians/1,000 population (2005)

Hospital bed density

0.7 beds/1,000 population (2012)

Drinking water source

urban: 97.4% of population
rural: 83.8% of population
total: 91.2% of population
urban: 2.6% of population
rural: 16.2% of population
total: 8.8% of population (2015 est.)

Sanitation facility access

urban: 86.7% of population
rural: 77.7% of population
total: 82.6% of population
urban: 13.3% of population
rural: 22.3% of population
total: 17.4% of population (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate

0.37% (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS

20,000 (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths

1,000 (2015 est.)

Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria
note: active local transmission of Zika virus by Aedes species mosquitoes has been identified in this country (as of August 2016); it poses an important risk (a large number of cases possible) among US citizens if bitten by an infective mosquito; other less common ways to get Zika are through sex, via blood transfusion, or during pregnancy, in which the pregnant woman passes Zika virus to her fetus (2016)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

16.3% (2014)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

7.1% (2012)

Education expenditures

5.9% of GDP (2013)


definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 88.5%
male: 88.4%
female: 88.6% (2015 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 11 years
male: 11 years
female: 12 years (2014)

Mother's mean age at first birth

note: median age a first birth among women 25-29 (2011-12 est.)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24

total: 8%
male: 5.5%
female: 13.8% (2011 est.)


Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Honduras
conventional short form: Honduras
local long form: Republica de Honduras
local short form: Honduras
etymology: the name means "depths" in Spanish and refers to the deep anchorage in the northern Bay of Trujillo

Government type

presidential republic


name: Tegucigalpa
geographic coordinates: 14 06 N, 87 13 W
time difference: UTC-6 (1 hour behind Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: none scheduled for 2013

Administrative divisions

18 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Atlantida, Choluteca, Colon, Comayagua, Copan, Cortes, El Paraiso, Francisco Morazan, Gracias a Dios, Intibuca, Islas de la Bahia, La Paz, Lempira, Ocotepeque, Olancho, Santa Barbara, Valle, Yoro


15 September 1821 (from Spain)

National holiday

Independence Day, 15 September (1821)


several previous; latest approved 11 January 1982, effective 20 January 1982; amended many times, last in 2012; note - in 2015, the Honduran Supreme Court struck down several constitutional articles on presidential term limits (2016)

Legal system

civil law system

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction


citizenship by birth: yes
citizenship by descent: yes
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 1 to 3 years


18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch

chief of state: President Juan Orlando HERNANDEZ Alvarado (since 27 January 2014); Vice Presidents Ricardo ALVAREZ, Rossana GUEVARA, and Lorena HERRERA (since 27 January 2014); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Juan Orlando HERNANDEZ Alvarado (since 27 January 2014); Vice Presidents Ricardo ALVAREZ, Rossana GUEVARA, and Lorena HERRERA (since 27 January 2014)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by president
elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a single 4-year term; election last held on 24 November 2013 (next to be held in November 2017)
election results: Juan Orlando HERNANDEZ Alvarado elected president; percent of vote - Juan Orlando HERNANDEZ Alvarado (PNH) 36.9%, Xiomara CASTRO (LIBRE) 28.8%, Mauricio VILLEDA (PL) 20.3%, Salvador NASRALLA (PAC) 13.4%, other 0.6%

Legislative branch

description: unicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional (128 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)
elections: last held on 24 November 2013 (next to be held in November 2017)
election results: percent of vote by party - PNH 33.6%, LIBRE 27.5%, PL 17.0%, PAC 15.2%, PINU 1.9%, UD 1.7%, DC 1.6%, other 1.5%; seats by party - PNH 48, LIBRE 37, PL 27, PAC 13, PINU 1, UD 1, DC 1

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justicia (15 principal judges - including the court president - and 7 alternates; court organized into civil, criminal, and labor chambers); note - the court has both judicial and constitutional jurisdiction
judge selection and term of office: court president elected by his peers; judges elected by the National Congress from candidates proposed by the Nominating Board, a diverse 7-member group of judicial officials, other government and non-government officials selected by each of their organizations; judges elected by Congress for renewable, 7-year terms
subordinate courts: courts of appeal; courts of first instance; peace courts

Political parties and leaders

Anti-Corruption Party or PAC [Salvador NASRALLA]
Christian Democratic Party or DC [Felicito AVILA Ordonez]
Democratic Unification Party or UD [Cesar HAM]
Freedom and Refounding Party or LIBRE [Jose Manuel ZELAYA Rosales]
Liberal Party or PL [Mauricio VILLEDA Bermudez]
National Party of Honduras or PNH [Gladys Aurora LOPEZ]
Social Democratic Innovation and Unity Party or PINU [Jorge Rafael AGUILAR Paredes]

Political pressure groups and leaders

Beverage and Related Industries Syndicate or STIBYS
Committee for the Defense of Human Rights in Honduras or CODEH
Commiittee of the Relatives of the Disappeared in Honduras or COFADEH
Confederation of Honduran Workers or CTH
Coordinating Committee of Popular Organizations or CCOP
General Workers Confederation or CGT
Honduran Council of Private Enterprise or COHEP
National Association of Honduran Campesinos or ANACH
National Union of Campesinos or UNC
Popular Bloc or BP
United Confederation of Honduran Workers or CUTH
United Farm Workers' Movement of the Aguan OR MUCA

International organization participation

BCIE, CACM, CD, CELAC, EITI (candidate country), FAO, G-11, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC (suspended), IOM, IPU, ISO (subscriber), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA (observer), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSTAH, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, Pacific Alliance (observer), PCA, Petrocaribe, SICA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WCO (suspended), WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Jorge Alberto MILLA Reyes (since 21 May 2014)
chancery: Suite 4-M, 3007 Tilden Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 966-2604
FAX: [1] (202) 966-9751
consulate(s): Dallas, McAllen (TX0
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador James D. NEALON (since 21 August 2014)
embassy: Avenida La Paz, Apartado Postal No. 3453, Tegucigalpa
mailing address: American Embassy, APO AA 34022, Tegucigalpa
telephone: [504] 2236-9320, 2238-5114
FAX: [504] 2236-9037

Flag description

three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and blue, with five blue, five-pointed stars arranged in an X pattern centered in the white band; the stars represent the members of the former Federal Republic of Central America: Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua; the blue bands symbolize the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea; the white band represents the land between the two bodies of water and the peace and prosperity of its people
note: similar to the flag of El Salvador, which features a round emblem encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE EL SALVADOR EN LA AMERICA CENTRAL centered in the white band; also similar to the flag of Nicaragua, which features a triangle encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE NICARAGUA on top and AMERICA CENTRAL on the bottom, centered in the white band

National symbol(s)

scarlet macaw, white-tailed deer; national colors: blue, white

National anthem

name: "Himno Nacional de Honduras" (National Anthem of Honduras)
lyrics/music: Augusto Constancio COELLO/Carlos HARTLING
note: adopted 1915; the anthem's seven verses chronicle Honduran history; on official occasions, only the chorus and last verse are sung


Economy - overview

Honduras, the second poorest country in Central America, suffers from extraordinarily unequal distribution of income, as well as high underemployment. While historically dependent on the export of bananas and coffee, Honduras has diversified its export ba

Honduras’s economy depends heavily on US trade and remittances. The US-Central America-Dominican Republic Free Trade Agreement came into force in 2006 and has helped foster foreign direct investment, but physical and political insecurity, as well as crime

The economy registered modest economic growth of 3.1%-3.6% from 2010 to 2016, insufficient to improve living standards for the nearly 65% of the population in poverty. In 2016, Honduras faced rising public debt but its economy has performed better than ex

GDP (purchasing power parity)

$43.19 billion (2016 est.)
$41.68 billion (2015 est.)
$40.22 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)

$20.93 billion (2015 est.)

GDP - real growth rate

3.6% (2016 est.)
3.6% (2015 est.)
3.1% (2014 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP)

$5,300 (2016 est.)
$5,200 (2015 est.)
$5,100 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars

Gross national saving

20.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
18.8% of GDP (2015 est.)
14.6% of GDP (2014 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 81.3%
government consumption: 15.2%
investment in fixed capital: 23.3%
investment in inventories: 1%
exports of goods and services: 43.1%
imports of goods and services: -63.9% (2016 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 13.8%
industry: 26.6%
services: 59.6% (2016 est.)

Agriculture - products

bananas, coffee, citrus, corn, African palm; beef; timber; shrimp, tilapia, lobster, sugar, oriental vegetables


sugar, coffee, woven and knit apparel, wood products, cigars

Industrial production growth rate

3.3% (2016 est.)

Labor force

3.625 million (2016 est.)

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 39.2%
industry: 20.9%
services: 39.8% (2005 est.)

Unemployment rate

3.9% (2016 est.)
4.1% (2015 est.)
note: about one-third of the people are underemployed

Population below poverty line

60% (2010 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 0.4%
highest 10%: 42.4% (2009 est.)

Distribution of family income - Gini index

57.7 (2007)
53.8 (2003)


revenues: $3.982 billion
expenditures: $4.384 billion (2016 est.)

Taxes and other revenues

19% of GDP (2016 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

-1.9% of GDP (2016 est.)

Public debt

47.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
45.3% of GDP (2015 est.)

Fiscal year

calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

2.9% (2016 est.)
3.2% (2015 est.)

Central bank discount rate

6.25% (31 December 2010)

Commercial bank prime lending rate

20.8% (31 December 2016 est.)
20.66% (31 December 2015 est.)

Stock of narrow money

$2.51 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$2.326 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

Stock of broad money

$8.486 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$8.042 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

Stock of domestic credit

$12.5 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$11.84 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares


Current account balance

-$1.197 billion (2016 est.)
-$1.291 billion (2015 est.)


$8.165 billion (2016 est.)
$8.041 billion (2015 est.)

Exports - commodities

coffee, apparel, coffee, shrimp, automobile wire harnesses, cigars, bananas, gold, palm oil, fruit, lobster, lumber

Exports - partners

US 36%, Germany 8.7%, El Salvador 8.5%, Guatemala 6%, Nicaragua 5.6%, Netherlands 4.1% (2015)


$11.25 billion (2016 est.)
$11.1 billion (2015 est.)

Imports - commodities

communications equipment, machinery and transport, industrial raw materials, chemical products, fuels, foodstuffs

Imports - partners

US 35.2%, China 13.6%, Guatemala 9.2%, Mexico 6.6%, El Salvador 5.1% (2015)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$3.846 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$3.755 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

Debt - external

$8.042 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$7.649 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

Exchange rates

lempiras (HNL) per US dollar -
23.07 (2016 est.)
22.098 (2015 est.)
22.098 (2014 est.)
21.137 (2013 est.)
19.64 (2012 est.)


Electricity - access

population without electricity: 900,000
electrification - total population: 82%
electrification - urban areas: 97%
electrification - rural areas: 66% (2013)

Electricity - production

7.7 billion kWh (2014 est.)

Electricity - consumption

5.3 billion kWh (2014 est.)

Electricity - exports

500 million kWh (2014 est.)

Electricity - imports

800 million kWh (2014 est.)

Electricity - installed generating capacity

2.1 million kW (2014 est.)

Electricity - from fossil fuels

60.9% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from nuclear fuels

0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants

28.7% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from other renewable sources

10.4% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Crude oil - production

0 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Crude oil - exports

0 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Crude oil - imports

0 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Crude oil - proved reserves

0 bbl (1 January 2016 es)

Refined petroleum products - production

0 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - consumption

53,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)

Refined petroleum products - exports

13,160 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - imports

64,820 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Natural gas - production

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - consumption

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - exports

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - imports

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves

0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy

10 million Mt (2013 est.)


Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 497,072
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 6 (July 2015 est.)

Telephones - mobile cellular

total: 8.048 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 92 (July 2015 est.)

Telephone system

general assessment: fixed-line connections are increasing but still limited; competition among multiple providers of mobile-cellular services is contributing to a sharp increase in subscribership
domestic: beginning in 2003, private sub-operators allowed to provide fixed lines in order to expand telephone coverage contributing to a small increase in fixed-line teledensity; mobile-cellular subscribership is roughly 90 per 100 persons
international: country code - 504; landing point for both the Americas Region Caribbean Ring System (ARCOS-1) and the MAYA-1 fiber-optic submarine cable system that together provide connectivity to South and Central America, parts of the Caribbean, and the US; satellite (2015)

Broadcast media

multiple privately owned terrestrial TV networks, supplemented by multiple cable TV networks; Radio Honduras is the lone government-owned radio network; roughly 300 privately owned radio stations (2007)

Internet country code


Internet users

total: 1.781 million
percent of population: 20.4% (July 2015 est.)


National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 5
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 10
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 251,149
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 502,372 mt-km (2015)

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

HR (2016)


103 (2013)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 13
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 3 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 90
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 16
under 914 m: 73 (2013)


total: 699 km
narrow gauge: 164 km 1.067-m gauge; 115 km 1.057-m gauge; 420 km 0.914-m gauge (2014)


total: 14,742 km
paved: 3,367 km
unpaved: 11,375 km (1,543 km summer only)
note: an additional 8,951 km of non-official roads used by the coffee industry (2012)


465 km (most navigable only by small craft) (2012)

Merchant marine

total: 88
by type: bulk carrier 5, cargo 39, carrier 2, chemical tanker 5, container 1, passenger 4, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 21, refrigerated cargo 7, roll on/roll off 3
foreign-owned: 47 (Bahrain 5, Canada 1, Chile 1, China 2, Egypt 2, Greece 4, Israel 1, Japan 4, Lebanon 2, Montenegro 1, Panama 1, Singapore 11, South Korea 6, Taiwan 1, Thailand 2, UAE 1, UK 1, US 1) (2010)

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): La Ceiba, Puerto Cortes, San Lorenzo, Tela


Military branches

Honduran Armed Forces (Fuerzas Armadas de Honduras, FFAA): Army, Navy (includes Naval Infantry), Honduran Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Hondurena, FAH) (2012)

Military service age and obligation

18 years of age for voluntary 2- to 3-year military service; no conscription (2012)

Military expenditures

1.05% of GDP (2012)
1.13% of GDP (2011)
1.05% of GDP (2010)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

International Court of Justice (ICJ) ruled on the delimitation of "bolsones" (disputed areas) along the El Salvador-Honduras border in 1992 with final settlement by the parties in 2006 after an Organization of American States survey and a further ICJ ruling in 2003; the 1992 ICJ ruling advised a tripartite resolution to a maritime boundary in the Gulf of Fonseca with consideration of Honduran access to the Pacific; El Salvador continues to claim tiny Conejo Island, not mentioned in the ICJ ruling, off Honduras in the Gulf of Fonseca; Honduras claims the Belizean-administered Sapodilla Cays off the coast of Belize in its constitution, but agreed to a joint ecological park around the cays should Guatemala consent to a maritime corridor in the Caribbean under the OAS-sponsored 2002 Belize-Guatemala Differendum

Refugees and internally displaced persons

IDPs: 174,000 (violence, extortion, threats, forced recruitment by urban gangs) (2015)

Illicit drugs

transshipment point for drugs and narcotics; illicit producer of cannabis, cultivated on small plots and used principally for local consumption; corruption is a major problem; some money-laundering activity