The native Taino - who inhabited the island of Hispaniola when it was discovered by Christopher COLUMBUS in 1492 - were virtually annihilated by Spanish settlers within 25 years. In the early 17th century, the French established a presence on Hispaniola. In 1697, Spain ceded to the French the western third of the island, which later became Haiti. The French colony, based on forestry and sugar-related industries, became one of the wealthiest in the Caribbean but only through the heavy importation of African slaves and considerable environmental degradation. In the late 18th century, Haiti's nearly half million slaves revolted under Toussaint L'OUVERTURE. After a prolonged struggle, Haiti became the first post-colonial black-led nation in the world, declaring its independence in 1804. Currently the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere, Haiti has experienced political instability for most of its history. A massive magnitude 7.0 earthquake struck Haiti in January 2010 with an epicenter about 25 km (15 mi) west of the capital, Port-au-Prince. Estimates are that over 300,000 people were killed and some 1.5 million left homeless. The earthquake was assessed as the worst in this region over the last 200 years. In October 2016, Hurricane Matthew struck southwestern Haiti causing widespread and devastating destruction, with an estimated 2.1 million people affected. President Michel MARTELLY completed his term in February 2016 with no successor in place. The National Assembly elected Interim President Jocelerme PRIVERT to lead until new elections take place in 2017.



Caribbean, western one-third of the island of Hispaniola, between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, west of the Dominican Republic

Geographic coordinates

19 00 N, 72 25 W

Map references

Central America and the Caribbean


total: 27,750 sq km
land: 27,560 sq km
water: 190 sq km

Area - comparative

slightly smaller than Maryland

Land boundaries

total: 376 km
border countries (1): Dominican Republic 376 km


1,771 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: to depth of exploitation


tropical; semiarid where mountains in east cut off trade winds


mostly rough and mountainous


mean elevation: 470 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: Chaine de la Selle 2,680 m

Natural resources

bauxite, copper, calcium carbonate, gold, marble, hydropower, arable land

Land use

agricultural land: 66.4%
arable land 38.5%; permanent crops 10.2%; permanent pasture 17.7%
forest: 3.6%
other: 30% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land

970 sq km (2012)

Natural hazards

lies in the middle of the hurricane belt and subject to severe storms from June to October; occasional flooding and earthquakes; periodic droughts

Environment - current issues

extensive deforestation (much of the remaining forested land is being cleared for agriculture and used as fuel); soil erosion; inadequate supplies of potable water

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: Hazardous Wastes

Geography - note

shares island of Hispaniola with Dominican Republic (western one-third is Haiti, eastern two-thirds is the Dominican Republic)

People and Society


note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2016 est.)


noun: Haitian(s)
adjective: Haitian

Ethnic groups

black 95%, mulatto and white 5%


French (official), Creole (official)


Roman Catholic (official) 54.7%, Protestant 28.5% (Baptist 15.4%, Pentecostal 7.9%, Adventist 3%, Methodist 1.5%, other 0.7%), voodoo (official) 2.1%, other 4.6%, none 10.2%
note: many Haitians practice elements of voodoo in addition to another religion, most often Roman Catholicism; voodoo was recognized as an official religion in 2003

Age structure

0-14 years: 33.39% (male 1,744,599/female 1,756,155)
15-24 years: 21.35% (male 1,120,532/female 1,118,278)
25-54 years: 36.24% (male 1,885,478/female 1,914,078)
55-64 years: 4.94% (male 246,453/female 271,455)
65 years and over: 4.09% (male 189,098/female 239,674) (2016 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 62.3%
youth dependency ratio: 54.8%
elderly dependency ratio: 7.5%
potential support ratio: 13.3% (2015 est.)

Median age

total: 22.6 years
male: 22.4 years
female: 22.8 years (2016 est.)

Population growth rate

1.71% (2016 est.)

Birth rate

23.3 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)

Death rate

7.7 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)

Net migration rate

1.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)

Population distribution

fairly even distribution; largest concentrations located near coastal areas


urban population: 58.6% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 3.78% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population

PORT-AU-PRINCE (capital) 2.44 million (2015)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.01 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.91 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.81 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2016 est.)

Child labor - children ages 5-14

total number: 2,587,205
percentage: 21% (2006 est.)

Maternal mortality rate

359 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)

Infant mortality rate

total: 48.2 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 54.6 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 41.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 63.8 years
male: 61.2 years
female: 66.4 years (2016 est.)

Total fertility rate

2.79 children born/woman (2016 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

34.5% (2012)

Health expenditures

7.6% of GDP (2014)

Hospital bed density

1.3 beds/1,000 population (2007)

Drinking water source

urban: 64.9% of population
rural: 47.6% of population
total: 57.7% of population
urban: 35.1% of population
rural: 52.4% of population
total: 42.3% of population (2015 est.)

Sanitation facility access

urban: 33.6% of population
rural: 19.2% of population
total: 27.6% of population
urban: 66.4% of population
rural: 80.8% of population
total: 72.4% of population (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate

1.71% (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS

133,500 (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths

8,000 (2015 est.)

Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria
note: active local transmission of Zika virus by Aedes species mosquitoes has been identified in this country (as of August 2016); it poses an important risk (a large number of cases possible) among US citizens if bitten by an infective mosquito; other less common ways to get Zika are through sex, via blood transfusion, or during pregnancy, in which the pregnant woman passes Zika virus to her fetus (2016)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

10.7% (2014)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

11.6% (2012)

Education expenditures



definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 60.7%
male: 64.3%
female: 57.3% (2015 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth

note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2012 est.)


Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Haiti
conventional short form: Haiti
local long form: Republique d'Haiti/Repiblik d Ayiti
local short form: Haiti/Ayiti
etymology: the native Taino name means "land of high mountains" and was originally applied to the entire island of Hispaniola

Government type

semi-presidential republic


name: Port-au-Prince
geographic coordinates: 18 32 N, 72 20 W
time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: none in 2016

Administrative divisions

10 departments (departements, singular - departement); Artibonite, Centre, Grand'Anse, Nippes, Nord, Nord-Est, Nord-Ouest, Ouest, Sud, Sud-Est


1 January 1804 (from France)

National holiday

Independence Day, 1 January (1804)


many previous (23 total); latest adopted 10 March 1987; amended 2012 (2016)

Legal system

civil law system strongly influenced by Napoleonic Code

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; non-party state to the ICCt


citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a native-born citizen of Haiti
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years


18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: Interim President Jocelerme PRIVERT (since 14 February 2016); note - parliament elected Interim President PRIVERT after President Michel MARTELLY stepped down from office 7 February 2016
head of government: Prime Minister Enex JEAN-CHARLES (since 25 March 2016)
cabinet: Cabinet chosen by the prime minister in consultation with the president; parliament must ratify the Cabinet and Prime Minister's governing policy
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a single non-consecutive term); election last held 20 November 2016 (next to be held in October 2021); note - the previous election was last held on 25 October 2015, but a runoff scheduled for 24 April 2016 was postponed; on 6 June 2016, the Provisional Electoral Council announced that it had accepted a recommendation by an independent commission, which had found that fraud had marred the October 2015 vote, to formally annul the results; a repeat of the first round of the presidential election scheduled to take place 9 October 2016, with a second round to be held on 8 January 2017, was canceled becaused of Hurricane Matthew; the rescheduled election then took place on 20 November 2016
election results: 2016 election - Jovenel MOISE elected president; percent of vote - Jovenel MOISE (PHTK) 55.60%, Jude CELESTIN (LAPEH) 19.57%, Jean-Charles MOISE (PPD) 11.04%, Maryse NARCISSE (FL) 9.01%; other 0.75%; note - Jovenel MOISE will take office on 7 February 2017

Legislative branch

description: bicameral legislature or "le Corps Legislatif ou parlement" consists of le Senat or Senate (30 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote in two rounds if needed; members serve 6-year terms with one-third of the membership renewed every 2 years) and la Chambre de deputes or Chamber of Deputies (118 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote in two rounds if needed; members serve 4-year terms); note - when the two chambers meet collectively it is known as L'Assemblee Nationale or the National Assembly that is convened for specific purposes spelled out in the constitution
elections: Senate - last held on 9 August 2015 with run-off election on 25 October 2015 (next possible election in 2017); Chamber of Deputies - last held on 9 August 2015 with run-off election on 25 October 2015 (next regular election may be held in 2017)
election results: 2015 Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; 2015 Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; note - official results pending

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court or Cour de Cassation (consists of a chief judge and other judges); note - Haiti is a member of the Caribbean Court of Justice
judge selection and term of office: judges appointed by the president from candidate lists submitted by the Senate of the National Assembly; note - Article 174 of the Haiti Constitution states that judges of the Supreme Court are appointed for 10 years, whereas Article 177 states that judges of the Supreme Court are appointed for life
subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; Courts of First Instance; magistrates' courts; special courts

Political parties and leaders

Alternative League for Haitian Progress and Empowerment or LAPEH [Jude CELESTIN]
Assembly of Progressive National Democrats or RDNP [Mirlande MANIGAT]
Christian and Citizen For Haiti's Reconstruction or ACCRHA [Chavannes JEUNE]
Christian Movement for a New Haiti or MCNH [Luc MESADIEU]
Convention for Democratic Unity or KID [Evans PAUL]
Cooperative Action to Rebuild Haiti or KONBA [Jean William JEANTY]
December 16 Platform or Platfom 16 Desanm [Dr. Gerard BLOT]
Democratic Alliance or ALYANS [Evans PAUL] (coalition composed of KID and PPRH)
Democratic Centers's National Council or CONACED [Osner FEVRY]
Democratic Movement for the Liberation of Haiti-Revolutionary Party of Haiti or MODELH-PRDH
Effort and Solidarity to Create an Alternative for the People or ESKAMP [Joseph JASME]
Fanmi Lavalas or FL [Jean-Bertrand ARISTIDE]
For Us All or PONT [Jean-Marie CHERESTAL]
Fusion of Haitian Social Democrats or FHSD [Edmonde Supplice BEAUZILE]
Grouping of Citizens for Hope or RESPE [Charles-Henri BAKER]
Haiti in Action or AAA [Youri LATORTUE]
Haitian Tet Kale Party or PHTK [Ann Valerie Timothee MILFORT]
Haitians for Haiti [Yvon NEPTUNE]
Independent Movement for National Reconstruction or MIRN [Luc FLEURINORD]
Konbit Pou refe Ayiti or KONBIT
Lavni Organization or LAVNI [Yves CRISTALIN]
Liberal Party of Haiti or PLH [Jean Andre VICTOR]
Liberation Platform or PLATFORME LIBERATION
Love Haiti or Renmen Ayiti [Jean-Henry CEANT and Camille LEBLANC]
Merging of Haitian Social Democratics or FUSION [Edmonde Supplice BEAUZILE] (coalition of Ayiti Capable, Haitian National Revolutionary Party, and National Congress of Democratic Movements)
Mobilization for National Development or MDN [Hubert de RONCERAY]
National Front for the Reconstruction of Haiti or FRN [Guy PHILIPPE]
New Christian Movement for a New Haiti or MOCHRENA [Luc MESADIEU]
Patriotic Movement of the Democratic Opposition or MOPOD
Patriotic Unity or IP [Marie Denise CLAUDE]
Peasant Platform or PP
Peasant's Response or Repons Peyizan [Michel MARTELLY]
Platform Alternative for Progress and Democracy or ALTENATIV [Victor BENOIT and Evans PAUL]
Platform of Haitian Patriots or PLAPH [Dejean BELISAIRE and Himmler REBU]
Platform Pitit Dessalines or PPD [Jean-Charles MOISE]
Popular Party for the Renewal of Haiti or PPRH [Claude ROMAIN]
Renmen Ayiti or RA [Jean-Henry CEANT]
Respect or RESPE
Socialist Action Movement or MAS
Strength in Unity or Ansanm Nou Fo [Leslie VOLTAIRE]
Struggling People's Organization or OPL [Sauveur PIERRE-ETIENNE]
Truth (Verite)
Union [Chavannes JEUNE]
Union of Haitian Citizens for Democracy, Development, and Education or UCADDE [Jeantel JOSEPH]
Union of Nationalist and Progressive Haitians or UNPH [Edouard FRANCISQUE]
Unity or Inite [Levaillant LOUIS-JEUNE] (coalition that includes Front for Hope or L'ESPWA)
Vigilance or Veye Yo [Lavarice GAUDIN]
Youth for People's Power or JPP [Rene CIVIL]

Political pressure groups and leaders

Autonomous Organizations of Haitian Workers or CATH [Fignole ST-CYR]
Confederation of Haitian Workers or CTH
Economic Forum of the Private Sector or EF [Reginald BOULOS]
Federation of Workers Trade Unions or FOS
General Organization of Independent Haitian Workers [Patrick NUMAS]
Grand-Anse Resistance Committee or KOREGA
Haitian Association of Industries or ADIH [Georges SASSINE]
National Popular Assembly or APN
Papaye Peasants Movement or MPP [Chavannes JEAN-BAPTISTE]
Popular Organizations Gathering Power or PROP
Protestant Federation of Haiti
Roman Catholic Church

International organization participation


Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Paul Getty ALTIDOR (since 17 April 2012)
chancery: 2311 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 332-4090
FAX: [1] (202) 745-7215
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Miami, Orlando (FL), New York, San Juan (Puerto Rico)

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Peter MULREAN (since 6 October 2015)
embassy: Tabarre 41, Route de Tabarre, Port-au-Prince
mailing address: (in Haiti) P.O. Box 1634, Port-au-Prince, Haiti; (from abroad) 3400 Port-au-Prince, State Department, Washington, DC 20521-3400
telephone: [509] 2229-8000
FAX: [509] 229-8028

National symbol(s)

Hispaniolan trogon (bird), hibiscus flower; national colors: blue, red

Flag description

two equal horizontal bands of blue (top) and red with a centered white rectangle bearing the coat of arms, which contains a palm tree flanked by flags and two cannons above a scroll bearing the motto L'UNION FAIT LA FORCE (Union Makes Strength); the colors are taken from the French Tricolor and represent the union of blacks and mulattoes

National anthem

name: "La Dessalinienne" (The Dessalines Song)
lyrics/music: Justin LHERISSON/Nicolas GEFFRARD
note: adopted 1904; named for Jean-Jacques DESSALINES, a leader in the Haitian Revolution and first ruler of an independent Haiti


Economy - overview

Haiti's economy suffered a severe setback in January 2010 when a 7.0 magnitude earthquake destroyed much of its capital city, Port-au-Prince, and neighboring areas. Currently the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere, with 80% of the population living

Haiti is a free market economy with low labor costs and tariff-free access to the US for many of its exports. Two-fifths of all Haitians depend on the agricultural sector, mainly small-scale subsistence farming, which remains vulnerable to damage from fre

US economic engagement under the Caribbean Basin Trade Partnership Act (CBTPA) and the 2008 Haitian Hemispheric Opportunity through Partnership Encouragement Act (HOPE II) helped increase apparel exports and investment by providing duty-free access to the

Investment in Haiti is hampered by the difficulty of doing business and weak infrastructure, including access to electricity. Haiti's outstanding external debt was cancelled by donor countries following the 2010 earthquake, but has since risen to nearly $

GDP (purchasing power parity)

$19.36 billion (2016 est.)
$19.07 billion (2015 est.)
$18.85 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)

$8.259 billion (2015 est.)

GDP - real growth rate

1.5% (2016 est.)
1.2% (2015 est.)
2.8% (2014 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP)

$1,800 (2016 est.)
$1,800 (2015 est.)
$1,800 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars

Gross national saving

29.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
29.8% of GDP (2015 est.)
24.7% of GDP (2014 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 97.1%
government consumption: 0%
investment in fixed capital: 32%
investment in inventories: -5.3%
exports of goods and services: 14.9%
imports of goods and services: -44%
note: figure for household consumption also includes government consumption (2016 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 21.5%
industry: 20.3%
services: 58.2% (2016 est.)

Agriculture - products

coffee, mangoes, cocoa, sugarcane, rice, corn, sorghum; wood, vetiver


textiles, sugar refining, flour milling, cement, light assembly using imported parts

Industrial production growth rate

0.5% (2016 est.)

Labor force

4.594 million
note: shortage of skilled labor, unskilled labor abundant (2014 est.)

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 38.1%
industry: 11.5%
services: 50.4% (2010)

Unemployment rate

40.6% (2010 est.)
note: widespread unemployment and underemployment; more than two-thirds of the labor force do not have formal jobs

Population below poverty line

58.5% (2012 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 0.7%
highest 10%: 47.7% (2001)

Distribution of family income - Gini index

60.8 (2012)
59.2 (2001)


revenues: $1.563 billion
expenditures: $1.819 billion (2016 est.)

Taxes and other revenues

18.9% of GDP (2016 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

-3.1% of GDP (2016 est.)

Public debt

26.5% of GDP (2015 est.)
26.6% of GDP (2014 est.)

Fiscal year

1 October - 30 September

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

12.4% (2016 est.)
9% (2015 est.)

Commercial bank prime lending rate

12.9% (31 December 2016 est.)
12.9% (31 December 2015 est.)

Stock of narrow money

$988.3 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.073 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

Stock of broad money

$3.818 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$3.793 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of domestic credit

$2.61 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$2.404 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares


Current account balance

$35 million (2016 est.)
-$219 million (2015 est.)


$933.2 million (2016 est.)
$1.029 billion (2015 est.)

Exports - commodities

apparel, manufactures, oils, cocoa, mangoes, coffee

Exports - partners

US 85.3% (2015)


$3.149 billion (2016 est.)
$3.445 billion (2015 est.)

Imports - commodities

food, manufactured goods, machinery and transport equipment, fuels, raw materials

Imports - partners

Dominican Republic 35.3%, US 24.5%, Netherlands Antilles 9.4%, China 9.4% (2015)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$1.936 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.919 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

Debt - external

$2.022 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.969 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home

$1.384 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.269 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

Exchange rates

gourdes (HTG) per US dollar -
63.16 (2016 est.)
50.71 (2015 est.)
50.71 (2014 est.)
45.22 (2013 est.)
41.95 (2012 est.)


Electricity - access

population without electricity: 7,400,000
electrification - total population: 38%
electrification - urban areas: 72%
electrification - rural areas: 15% (2013)

Electricity - production

1 billion kWh (2014 est.)

Electricity - consumption

400 million kWh (2014 est.)

Electricity - exports

0 kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - imports

0 kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - installed generating capacity

300,000 kW (2014 est.)

Electricity - from fossil fuels

77.3% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from nuclear fuels

0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants

22.7% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from other renewable sources

0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Crude oil - production

0 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Crude oil - exports

0 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Crude oil - imports

0 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Crude oil - proved reserves

0 bbl (1 January 2016 es)

Refined petroleum products - production

0 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - consumption

18,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)

Refined petroleum products - exports

0 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - imports

17,200 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Natural gas - production

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - consumption

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - exports

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - imports

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves

0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy

2.1 million Mt (2013 est.)


Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 41,000
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (July 2015 est.)

Telephones - mobile cellular

total: 7.412 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 73 (July 2015 est.)

Telephone system

general assessment: telecommunications infrastructure is among the least-developed in Latin America and the Caribbean; domestic cell service is functional
domestic: mobile-cellular telephone services have expanded greatly in the last five years due to low-cost GSM phones and pay-as-you-go plans; mobile-cellular teledensity is about 70 per 100 persons
international: country code - 509; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2015)

Broadcast media

130 television stations throughout the country, including 1 government-owned; cable TV subscription service available; 495 radio stations (of them, only 135 are licensed), including 1 government-owned; more than 250 private and community radio stations; o (2015)

Internet country code


Internet users

total: 1.233 million
percent of population: 12.2% (July 2015 est.)


National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 1
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 1 (2015)

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

HH (2016)


14 (2013)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 10
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 8 (2013)


total: 4,266 km
paved: 768 km
unpaved: 3,498 km (2009)

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Cap-Haitien, Gonaives, Jacmel, Port-au-Prince


Military branches

no regular military forces - small Coast Guard; a Ministry of National Defense established May 2012; the regular Haitian Armed Forces (FAdH) - Army, Navy, and Air Force - have been demobilized but still exist on paper until or unless they are constitutionally abolished (2011)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

since 2004, peacekeepers from the UN Stabilization Mission in Haiti have assisted in maintaining civil order in Haiti; the mission currently includes 6,685 military, 2,607 police, and 443 civilian personnel; despite efforts to control illegal migration, Haitians cross into the Dominican Republic and sail to neighboring countries; Haiti claims US-administered Navassa Island

Refugees and internally displaced persons

IDPs: 55,107 (includes only IDPs from the 2010 earthquake living in camps or camp-like situations; information is lacking about IDPs living outside camps or who have left camps) (2016)
stateless persons: 977 (2015)
note: stateless persons are individuals without a nationality who were born in the Dominican Republic prior to January 2010

Trafficking in persons

current situation: Haiti is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; most of Haiti’s trafficking cases involve children in domestic servitude vulnerable to physical and sexual abuse; dismissed and runaway child domestic servants often end up in prostitution, begging, or street crime; other exploited populations included low-income Haitians, child laborers, and women and children living in IDP camps dating to the 2010 earthquake; Haitian adults are vulnerable to fraudulent labor recruitment abroad and, along with children, may be subjected to forced labor in the Dominican Republic, elsewhere in the Caribbean, South America, and the US; Dominicans are exploited in sex trafficking and forced labor in Haiti
tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List – Haiti does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; in 2014, Haiti was granted a waiver from an otherwise required downgrade to Tier 3 because its government has a written plan that, if implemented would constitute making significant efforts to bring itself into compliance with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; in 2014, Haiti developed a national anti-trafficking action plan and enacted a law prohibiting all forms of human trafficking, although judicial corruption hampered its implementation; progress was made in investigating and prosecuting suspected traffickers, but no convictions were made; the government sustained limited efforts to identify and refer victims to protective services, which were provided mostly by NGOs without government support; campaigns to raise awareness about child labor and child trafficking continued (2015)

Illicit drugs

Caribbean transshipment point for cocaine en route to the US and Europe; substantial bulk cash smuggling activity; Colombian narcotics traffickers favor Haiti for illicit financial transactions; pervasive corruption; significant consumer of cannabis