Carib Indians inhabited Grenada when Christopher COLUMBUS discovered the island in 1498, but it remained uncolonized for more than a century. The French settled Grenada in the 17th century, established sugar estates, and imported large numbers of African slaves. Britain took the island in 1762 and vigorously expanded sugar production. In the 19th century, cacao eventually surpassed sugar as the main export crop; in the 20th century, nutmeg became the leading export. In 1967, Britain gave Grenada autonomy over its internal affairs. Full independence was attained in 1974 making Grenada one of the smallest independent countries in the Western Hemisphere. Grenada was seized by a Marxist military council on 19 October 1983. Six days later the island was invaded by US forces and those of six other Caribbean nations, which quickly captured the ringleaders and their hundreds of Cuban advisers. Free elections were reinstituted the following year and have continued since then.



Caribbean, island between the Caribbean Sea and Atlantic Ocean, north of Trinidad and Tobago

Geographic coordinates

12 07 N, 61 40 W

Map references

Central America and the Caribbean


total: 344 sq km
land: 344 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative

twice the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries

0 km


121 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm


tropical; tempered by northeast trade winds


volcanic in origin with central mountains


mean elevation: NA
elevation extremes: lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: Mount Saint Catherine 840 m

Natural resources

timber, tropical fruit, deepwater harbors

Land use

agricultural land: 32.3%
arable land 8.8%; permanent crops 20.6%; permanent pasture 2.9%
forest: 50%
other: 17.7% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land

20 sq km (2012)

Natural hazards

lies on edge of hurricane belt; hurricane season lasts from June to November

Environment - current issues


Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note

the administration of the islands of the Grenadines group is divided between Saint Vincent and the Grenadines and Grenada

People and Society


111,219 (July 2016 est.)


noun: Grenadian(s)
adjective: Grenadian

Ethnic groups

African descent 89.4%, mixed 8.2%, East Indian 1.6%, other 0.9% (includes indigenous) (2001 est.)


English (official), French patois


Roman Catholic 44.6%, Protestant 43.5% (includes Anglican 11.5%, Pentecostal 11.3%, Seventh Day Adventist 10.5%, Baptist 2.9%, Church of God 2.6%, Methodist 1.8%, Evangelical 1.6%, other 1.3%), Jehovah's Witness 1.1%, Rastafarian 1.1%, other 6.2%, none 3.6%

Age structure

0-14 years: 24.15% (male 13,935/female 12,928)
15-24 years: 15.55% (male 8,609/female 8,684)
25-54 years: 40.36% (male 23,001/female 21,891)
55-64 years: 10.1% (male 5,753/female 5,476)
65 years and over: 9.84% (male 5,041/female 5,901) (2016 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 50.7%
youth dependency ratio: 39.9%
elderly dependency ratio: 10.8%
potential support ratio: 9.3% (2015 est.)

Median age

total: 30.9 years
male: 30.9 years
female: 31 years (2016 est.)

Population growth rate

0.46% (2016 est.)

Birth rate

15.8 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)

Death rate

8.1 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)

Net migration rate

-3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)

Population distribution

approximately one-third of the population is found in the capital of St. George's; the island's population is concentrated along the coast


urban population: 35.6% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 0.33% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population

SAINT GEORGE'S (capital) 38,000 (2014)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.1 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female
total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2016 est.)

Maternal mortality rate

27 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)

Infant mortality rate

total: 9.9 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 9.4 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 10.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 74.3 years
male: 71.7 years
female: 77.1 years (2016 est.)

Total fertility rate

2.04 children born/woman (2016 est.)

Health expenditures

6.1% of GDP (2014)

Physicians density

0.66 physicians/1,000 population (2006)

Hospital bed density

3.5 beds/1,000 population (2012)

Drinking water source

urban: 99% of population
rural: 95.3% of population
total: 96.6% of population
urban: 1% of population
rural: 4.7% of population
total: 3.4% of population (2015 est.)

Sanitation facility access

urban: 97.5% of population
rural: 98.3% of population
total: 98% of population
urban: 2.5% of population
rural: 1.7% of population
total: 2% of population (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate


HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS


HIV/AIDS - deaths


Major infectious diseases

note: active local transmission of Zika virus by Aedes species mosquitoes has been identified in this country (as of August 2016); it poses an important risk (a large number of cases possible) among US citizens if bitten by an infective mosquito; other less common ways to get Zika are through sex, via blood transfusion, or during pregnancy, in which the pregnant woman passes Zika virus to her fetus (2016)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

24.6% (2014)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 16 years
male: 15 years
female: 16 years (2009)


Country name

conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Grenada
etymology: probably named for the Spanish city of Granada; in Spanish "granada" means "pomegranate"

Government type

parliamentary democracy (Parliament); a Commonwealth realm


name: Saint George's
geographic coordinates: 12 03 N, 61 45 W
time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions

6 parishes and 1 dependency*; Carriacou and Petite Martinique*, Saint Andrew, Saint David, Saint George, Saint John, Saint Mark, Saint Patrick


7 February 1974 (from the UK)

National holiday

Independence Day, 7 February (1974)


previous 1967; latest presented 19 December 1973, effective 7 February 1974, suspended 1979 following a revolution, but restored in 1983; amended 1991 (Constitutional Judicature Act, 1991); note - in late 2015, as part of constitutional reform, Parliament completed its first reading of a package of amendments (2016)

Legal system

common law based on English model

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction


citizenship by birth: yes
citizenship by descent: yes
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 7 years for persons from a non-Caribbean state and 4 years for a person from a Caribbean state


18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor General Cecile LA GRENADE (since 7 May 2013)
head of government: Prime Minister Keith MITCHELL (since 20 February 2013)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister
elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the governor general

Legislative branch

description: bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (13 seats; members appointed by the governor general - 10 on the advice of the prime minister and 3 on the advice of the opposition party leader; members serve 5-year terms) and the House of Representatives (15 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 5-year terms)
elections: last held on 19 February 2013 (next to be held in 2018)
election results: House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NNP 59%, NDC 41%; seats by party - NNP 15

Judicial branch

highest court(s): the Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (ECSC) is the itinerant superior court of record for the 9-member Organization of Eastern Caribbean States to include Grenada; the ECSC - with its headquarters on St. Lucia - is comprised of the Court of Appeal with 3 justices and the High Court with 19 judges; sittings of the Court of Appeal and High Court rotate among the member states
judge selection and term of office: chief justice of Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court appointed by the Her Majesty, Queen ELIZABETH II; other justices and judges appointed by the Judicial and Legal Services Commission, and independent body of judicial officials; Court of Appeal justices appointed for life with mandatory retirement at age 65; High Court judges appointed for life with mandatory retirement at age 62
subordinate courts: magistrates' courts; Court of Magisterial Appeals

Political parties and leaders

Grenada United Labor Party or GULP [Wilfred HAYES]
National Democratic Congress or NDC [Tillman THOMAS]
New National Party or NNP [Keith MITCHELL]

Political pressure groups and leaders

Committee for Human Rights in Grenada or CHRG
New Jewel Movement Support Group
The British Grenada Friendship Society
The New Jewel 19 Committee

National symbol(s)

Grenada dove, Bougainvillea flower; national colors: red, yellow, green

International organization participation


Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Ethelstan A. FRIDAY (since 3 September 2013)
chancery: 1701 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 265-2561
FAX: [1] (202) 265-2468
consulate(s) general: Miami

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: the US does not have an embassy in Grenada; the US Ambassador to Barbados is accredited to Grenada
embassy: Lance-aux-Epines Stretch, Saint George's
mailing address: P. O. Box 54, Saint George's
telephone: [1] (473) 444-1173 through 1176
FAX: [1] (473) 444-4820

Flag description

a rectangle divided diagonally into yellow triangles (top and bottom) and green triangles (hoist side and outer side), with a red border around the flag; there are seven yellow, five-pointed stars with three centered in the top red border, three centered in the bottom red border, and one on a red disk superimposed at the center of the flag; there is also a symbolic nutmeg pod on the hoist-side triangle (Grenada is the world's second-largest producer of nutmeg, after Indonesia); the seven stars stand for the seven administrative divisions, with the central star denoting the capital, St. George; yellow represents the sun and the warmth of the people, green stands for vegetation and agriculture, and red symbolizes harmony, unity, and courage

National anthem

name: "Hail Grenada"
lyrics/music: Irva Merle BAPTISTE/Louis Arnold MASANTO
note: adopted 1974


Economy - overview

Grenada relies on tourism as its main source of foreign exchange especially since the construction of an international airport in 1985. Strong performances in construction and manufacturing, together with the development of tourism and higher education -

Hurricanes Ivan (2004) and Emily (2005) severely damaged the agricultural sector - particularly nutmeg and cocoa cultivation - which had been a key driver of economic growth. Grenada has rebounded from the devastating effects of the hurricanes but is now

GDP (purchasing power parity)

$1.511 billion (2016 est.)
$1.467 billion (2015 est.)
$1.381 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)

$1.028 billion (2015 est.)

GDP - real growth rate

3% (2016 est.)
6.2% (2015 est.)
7.3% (2014 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP)

$14,100 (2016 est.)
$13,700 (2015 est.)
$13,000 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars

Gross national saving

0.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
2.1% of GDP (2015 est.)
1.8% of GDP (2014 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 80.3%
government consumption: 15.1%
investment in fixed capital: 17%
investment in inventories: -0.1%
exports of goods and services: 23.8%
imports of goods and services: -36.1% (2016 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 9.6%
industry: 13.8%
services: 76.6% (2016 est.)

Agriculture - products

bananas, cocoa, nutmeg, mace, citrus, avocados, root crops, sugarcane, corn, vegetables


food and beverages, textiles, light assembly operations, tourism, construction

Industrial production growth rate

2% (2016 est.)

Labor force

59,900 (2013 est.)

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 11%
industry: 20%
services: 69% (2008 est.)

Unemployment rate

33.5% (2013)
25% (2008)

Population below poverty line

38% (2008 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%


revenues: $274.6 million
expenditures: $308.9 million (2016 est.)

Taxes and other revenues

26.7% of GDP (2016 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

-3.3% of GDP (2016 est.)

Public debt

110% of GDP (2012 est.)

Fiscal year

calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

0.5% (2016 est.)
-1.4% (2015 est.)

Central bank discount rate

6.5% (31 December 2009)
6.5% (31 December 2008)

Commercial bank prime lending rate

9% (31 December 2016 est.)
8.96% (31 December 2015 est.)

Stock of narrow money

$209.4 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$201.1 million (31 December 2015 est.)

Stock of broad money

$797 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$786.1 million (31 December 2015 est.)

Stock of domestic credit

$575.4 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$567.5 million (31 December 2015 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares


Current account balance

-$130 million (2016 est.)
-$157 million (2015 est.)


$44.2 million (2016 est.)
$43.8 million (2015 est.)

Exports - commodities

nutmeg, bananas, cocoa, fruit and vegetables, clothing, mace

Exports - partners

Nigeria 44.7%, St. Lucia 10.8%, Antigua and Barbuda 7.3%, St. Kitts and Nevis 6.6%, Dominica 6.6%, US 5.8% (2015)


$313.7 million (2016 est.)
$310.4 million (2015 est.)

Imports - commodities

food, manufactured goods, machinery, chemicals, fuel

Imports - partners

Trinidad and Tobago 49.6%, US 16.4% (2015)

Debt - external

$679 million (2013 est.)
$538 million (2010 est.)

Exchange rates

East Caribbean dollars (XCD) per US dollar -
2.7 (2016 est.)
2.7 (2015 est.)
2.7 (2014 est.)
2.7 (2013 est.)
2.7 (2012 est.)


Electricity - access

population without electricity: 11,121
electrification - total population: 91%
electrification - urban areas: 100%
electrification - rural areas: 80% (2012)

Electricity - production

200 million kWh (2014 est.)

Electricity - consumption

200 million kWh (2014 est.)

Electricity - exports

0 kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - imports

0 kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - installed generating capacity

50,000 kW (2014 est.)

Electricity - from fossil fuels

98.6% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from nuclear fuels

0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants

0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from other renewable sources

1.4% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Crude oil - production

0 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Crude oil - exports

0 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Crude oil - imports

0 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Crude oil - proved reserves

0 bbl (1 January 2016 es)

Refined petroleum products - production

0 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - consumption

2,300 bbl/day (2014 est.)

Refined petroleum products - exports

0 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - imports

2,259 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Natural gas - production

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - consumption

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - exports

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - imports

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves

0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy

500,000 Mt (2013 est.)


Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 27,034
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 24 (July 2015 est.)

Telephones - mobile cellular

total: 120,000
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 108 (July 2015 est.)

Telephone system

general assessment: adequate, automatic, island-wide telephone system
domestic: interisland VHF and UHF radiotelephone links
international: country code - 1-473; landing point for the East Caribbean Fiber System (ECFS) submarine cable with links to 13 other islands in the eastern Caribbean extending from the British Virgin Islands to Trinidad; SHF radiotelephone links to Trinidad and Tobago a (2015)

Broadcast media

the Grenada Broadcasting Network, jointly owned by the government and the Caribbean Communications Network of Trinidad and Tobago, operates a TV station and 2 radio stations; multi-channel cable TV subscription service is available; a dozen private radio (2007)

Internet country code


Internet users

total: 60,000
percent of population: 53.8% (July 2015 est.)


National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 0
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 0
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 0
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 0 mt-km (2015)

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

J3 (2016)


3 (2013)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2013)


total: 1,127 km
paved: 687 km
unpaved: 440 km (2001)

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Saint George's


Military branches

no regular military forces; Royal Grenada Police Force (includes Coast Guard) (2010)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international


Illicit drugs

small-scale cannabis cultivation; lesser transshipment point for marijuana and cocaine to US