Formed from the merger of the British colony of the Gold Coast and the Togoland trust territory, Ghana in 1957 became the first sub-Saharan country in colonial Africa to gain its independence. Ghana endured a long series of coups before Lt. Jerry RAWLINGS took power in 1981 and banned political parties. After approving a new constitution and restoring multiparty politics in 1992, RAWLINGS won presidential elections in 1992 and 1996 but was constitutionally prevented from running for a third term in 2000. John KUFUOR succeeded him and was reelected in 2004. John Atta MILLS won the 2008 presidential election and took over as head of state, but he died in July 2012 and was constitutionally succeeded by his vice president, John Dramani MAHAMA, who subsequently won the December 2012 presidential election.



Western Africa, bordering the Gulf of Guinea, between Cote d'Ivoire and Togo

Geographic coordinates

8 00 N, 2 00 W

Map references



total: 238,533 sq km
land: 227,533 sq km
water: 11,000 sq km

Area - comparative

slightly smaller than Oregon

Land boundaries

total: 2,420 km
border countries (3): Burkina Faso 602 km, Cote d'Ivoire 720 km, Togo 1,098 km


539 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm


tropical; warm and comparatively dry along southeast coast; hot and humid in southwest; hot and dry in north


mostly low plains with dissected plateau in south-central area


mean elevation: 190 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mount Afadjato 885 m

Natural resources

gold, timber, industrial diamonds, bauxite, manganese, fish, rubber, hydropower, petroleum, silver, salt, limestone

Land use

agricultural land: 69.1%
arable land 20.7%; permanent crops 11.9%; permanent pasture 36.5%
forest: 21.2%
other: 9.7% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land

340 sq km (2012)

Natural hazards

dry, dusty, northeastern harmattan winds from January to March; droughts

Environment - current issues

recurrent drought in north severely affects agricultural activities; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; poaching and habitat destruction threatens wildlife populations; water pollution; inadequate supplies of potable water

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation

Geography - note

Lake Volta is the world's largest artificial lake (manmade reservoir) by surface area (8,482 sq km; 3,275 sq mi); the lake was created following the completion of the Akosombo Dam in 1965, which holds back the White Volta and Black Volta Rivers

People and Society

Population growth rate

2.18% (2016 est.)


note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2016 est.)


noun: Ghanaian(s)
adjective: Ghanaian

Ethnic groups

Akan 47.5%, Mole-Dagbon 16.6%, Ewe 13.9%, Ga-Dangme 7.4%, Gurma 5.7%, Guan 3.7%, Grusi 2.5%, Mande 1.1%, other 1.4% (2010 est.)


Asante 16%, Ewe 14%, Fante 11.6%, Boron (Brong) 4.9%, Dagomba 4.4%, Dangme 4.2%, Dagarte (Dagaba) 3.9%, Kokomba 3.5%, Akyem 3.2%, Ga 3.1%, other 31.2%
note: English is the official language (2010 est.)


Christian 71.2% (Pentecostal/Charismatic 28.3%, Protestant 18.4%, Catholic 13.1%, other 11.4%), Muslim 17.6%, traditional 5.2%, other 0.8%, none 5.2% (2010 est.)

Demographic profile

Ghana has a young age structure, with approximately 57% of the population under the age of 25. Its total fertility rate fell significantly during the 1980s and 1990s but has stalled at around four children per woman for the last few years. Fertility remains higher in the northern region than the Greater Accra region. On average, desired fertility has remained stable for several years; urban dwellers want fewer children than rural residents. Increased life expectancy, due to better health care, nutrition, and hygiene, and reduced fertility have increased Ghana’s share of elderly persons; Ghana’s proportion of persons aged 60+ is among the highest in sub-Saharan Africa. Poverty has declined in Ghana, but it remains pervasive in the northern region, which is susceptible to droughts and floods and has less access to transportation infrastructure, markets, fertile farming land, and industrial centers. The northern region also has lower school enrollment, higher illiteracy, and fewer opportunities for women.
Ghana was a country of immigration in the early years after its 1957 independence, attracting labor migrants largely from Nigeria and other neighboring countries to mine minerals and harvest cocoa – immigrants composed about 12% of Ghana’s population in 1960. In the late 1960s, worsening economic and social conditions discouraged immigration, and hundreds of thousands of immigrants, mostly Nigerians, were expelled.
During the 1970s, severe drought and an economic downturn transformed Ghana into a country of emigration; neighboring Cote d’Ivoire was the initial destination. Later, hundreds of thousands of Ghanaians migrated to Nigeria to work in its booming oil industry, but most were deported in 1983 and 1985 as oil prices plummeted. Many Ghanaians then turned to more distant destinations, including other parts of Africa, Europe, and North America, but the majority continued to migrate within West Africa. Since the 1990s, increased emigration of skilled Ghanaians, especially to the US and the UK, drained the country of its health care and education professionals. Internally, poverty and other developmental disparities continue to drive Ghanaians from the north to the south, particularly to its urban centers.

Age structure

0-14 years: 38.2% (male 5,164,505/female 5,113,185)
15-24 years: 18.66% (male 2,498,185/female 2,522,353)
25-54 years: 34.05% (male 4,445,321/female 4,716,311)
55-64 years: 4.91% (male 642,984/female 678,784)
65 years and over: 4.19% (male 520,589/female 606,045) (2016 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 73%
youth dependency ratio: 67.2%
elderly dependency ratio: 5.9%
potential support ratio: 17% (2015 est.)

Median age

total: 21 years
male: 20.5 years
female: 21.5 years (2016 est.)

Birth rate

30.8 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)

Death rate

7.1 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)

Net migration rate

-1.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)


urban population: 54% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 3.4% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population

Kumasi 2.599 million; ACCRA (capital) 2.277 million (2015)

Child labor - children ages 5-14

total number: 1,806,750
percentage: 34% (2006 est.)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2016 est.)

Maternal mortality rate

319 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)

Infant mortality rate

total: 36.3 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 40.2 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 32.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 66.6 years
male: 64.1 years
female: 69.1 years (2016 est.)

Total fertility rate

4.03 children born/woman (2016 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

19.5% (2013)

Health expenditures

3.6% of GDP (2014)

Physicians density

0.1 physicians/1,000 population (2010)

Hospital bed density

0.9 beds/1,000 population (2011)

Drinking water source

urban: 92.6% of population
rural: 84% of population
total: 88.7% of population
urban: 7.4% of population
rural: 16% of population
total: 11.3% of population (2015 est.)

Sanitation facility access

urban: 20.2% of population
rural: 8.6% of population
total: 14.9% of population
urban: 79.8% of population
rural: 91.4% of population
total: 85.1% of population (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate

1.61% (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS

274,600 (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths

12,600 (2015 est.)

Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and yellow fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

10.9% (2014)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

11% (2014)

Education expenditures

6.2% of GDP (2014)


definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 76.6%
male: 82%
female: 71.4% (2015 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 11 years
male: 12 years
female: 11 years (2014)

Mother's mean age at first birth

note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2014 est.)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24

total: 11.2%
male: 10.2%
female: 12% (2010 est.)


Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Ghana
conventional short form: Ghana
former: Gold Coast
etymology: named for the medieval West African kingdom of the same name, but whose location was actually further north than the modern country

Government type

presidential republic


name: Accra
geographic coordinates: 5 33 N, 0 13 W
time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions

10 regions; Ashanti, Brong-Ahafo, Central, Eastern, Greater Accra, Northern, Upper East, Upper West, Volta, Western


6 March 1957 (from the UK)

National holiday

Independence Day, 6 March (1957)


several previous; latest drafted 31 March 1992, approved and promulgated 28 April 1992, entered into force 7 January 1993; amended 1996 (2016)

Legal system

mixed system of English common law and customary law

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction


citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent or grandparent must be a citizen of Ghana
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years


18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Nana Addo Dankwa AKUFO-ADDO (since 7 January 2017); Vice President Mahamudu BAWUMIA (NPP) (since 7 January 2017); the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Nana Addo Dankwa AKUFO-ADDO (since 7 January 2017); Vice President Mahamudu BAWUMIA (NPP) (since 7 January 2017)
cabinet: Council of Ministers; nominated by the president, approved by Parliament
elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 4-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 7 December 2016 (next to be held in December 2020)
election results: Nana Addo Dankwa AKUFO-ADDO elected president; percent of vote - Nana Addo Dankwa AKUFO-ADDO (NPP) 54.1%, John Dramani MAHAMA (NDC) 44.0%, other 1.8%; note - results after 267 of 275 constituencies declared

Political pressure groups and leaders

Christian Aid (water rights)
Committee for Joint Action or CJA (social and economic issues)
National Coalition Against the Privatization of Water or CAP (water rights)
Oxfam (water rights)
Public Citizen (water rights)
Students Coalition Against EPA [Kwabena Ososukene OKAI] (education reform)
Third World Network (social and economic issues)

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Parliament (275 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 4-year terms)
elections: last held on 7 December 2016 (next to be held in December 2020)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NDC 148, NPP 123, PNC 1, independent 3

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of a chief justice and 12 justices)
judge selection and term of office: chief justice appointed by the president in consultation with the Council of State (a small advisory body of prominent citizens) and with the approval of Parliament; other justices appointed by the president upon the advice of the Judicial Council (an 18-member independent body of judicial, military and police officials, and presidential nominees) and on the advice of the Council of State; justices can retire at age 60, with compulsory retirement at age 70
subordinate courts: Court of Appeal; High Court; Circuit Court; District Court; regional tribunals

National symbol(s)

black star, golden eagle; national colors: red, yellow, green, black

Political parties and leaders

Convention People's Party or CPP [Samia NKRUMAH]
National Democratic Congress or NDC [John Dramani MAHAMA]
New Patriotic Party or NPP [Nana AFUKO-ADDO]
People's National Convention or PNC [Hassan AYARIGA]
note: listed are four of the more popular political parties as of December 2012; there are more than 20 registered parties

International organization participation


Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Lt. Gen. Joseph Henry SMITH (since September 2014)
chancery: 3512 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 686-4520
FAX: [1] (202) 686-4527
consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Robert P. JACKSON (since 4 February 2016)
embassy: 24 Fourth Circular Rd., Cantonments, Accra
mailing address: P.O. Box 194, Accra
telephone: [233] 030-274-1000
FAX: [233] 030-274-1389

Flag description

three equal horizontal bands of red (top), yellow, and green, with a large black five-pointed star centered in the yellow band; red symbolizes the blood shed for independence, yellow represents the country's mineral wealth, while green stands for its forests and natural wealth; the black star is said to be the lodestar of African freedom
note: uses the popular Pan-African colors of Ethiopia; similar to the flag of Bolivia, which has a coat of arms centered in the yellow band

National anthem

name: "God Bless Our Homeland Ghana"
lyrics/music: unknown/Philip GBEHO
note: music adopted 1957, lyrics adopted 1966; the lyrics were changed twice, in 1960 when a republic was declared and after a 1966 coup


Industrial production growth rate

-0.5% (2016 est.)

Economy - overview

Ghana's economy was strengthened by a quarter century of relatively sound management, a competitive business environment, and sustained reductions in poverty levels, but in recent years has suffered the consequences of loose fiscal policy, high budget and

Agriculture accounts for about 20% of GDP and employs more than half of the workforce, mainly small landholders. Gold and cocoa exports, and individual remittances, are major sources of foreign exchange. Expansion of Ghana’s nascent oil industry has boost

As of 2016, the biggest single economic issue facing Ghana is the lack of consistent electricity. While the MAHAMA administration is taking steps to improve the situation, little progress has been made. Ghana signed a $920 million extended credit facility

GDP (purchasing power parity)

$120.8 billion (2016 est.)
$116.9 billion (2015 est.)
$112.5 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)

$42.76 billion (2015 est.)

GDP - real growth rate

3.3% (2016 est.)
3.9% (2015 est.)
4% (2014 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP)

$4,400 (2016 est.)
$4,300 (2015 est.)
$4,300 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars

Gross national saving

16.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
17.1% of GDP (2015 est.)
17% of GDP (2014 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 66.6%
government consumption: 19.6%
investment in fixed capital: 24.5%
investment in inventories: 0.8%
exports of goods and services: 36.7%
imports of goods and services: -48.2% (2016 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 19.5%
industry: 24%
services: 56.4% (2016 est.)

Agriculture - products

cocoa, rice, cassava (manioc, tapioca), peanuts, corn, shea nuts, bananas; timber


mining, lumbering, light manufacturing, aluminum smelting, food processing, cement, small commercial ship building, petroleum

Labor force

11.99 million (2016 est.)

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 44.7%
industry: 14.4%
services: 40.9% (2013 est.)

Unemployment rate

5.2% (2013 est.)

Population below poverty line

24.2% (2013 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 2%
highest 10%: 32.8% (2006)

Distribution of family income - Gini index

42.3 (2012-13)
41.9 (2005-06)


revenues: $9.068 billion
expenditures: $11.55 billion (2016 est.)

Taxes and other revenues

21.2% of GDP (2016 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

-5.8% of GDP (2016 est.)

Public debt

73.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
71.8% of GDP (2015 est.)

Fiscal year

calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

17.8% (2016 est.)
17.2% (2015 est.)

Central bank discount rate

21% (31 December 2014)
16% (31 December 2013)

Commercial bank prime lending rate

31.8% (31 December 2016 est.)
28.6% (31 December 2015 est.)

Stock of narrow money

$5.914 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$5.736 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

Stock of broad money

$13.02 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$12.42 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

Stock of domestic credit

$13.39 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$12.93 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares

$3.465 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$3.097 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$3.531 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Current account balance

-$2.693 billion (2016 est.)
-$2.836 billion (2015 est.)


$10.25 billion (2016 est.)
$10.36 billion (2015 est.)

Exports - commodities

oil, gold, cocoa, timber, tuna, bauxite, aluminum, manganese ore, diamonds, horticultural products

Exports - partners

India 25.2%, Switzerland 12.2%, China 10.6%, France 5.7% (2015)


$13.73 billion (2016 est.)
$13.47 billion (2015 est.)

Imports - commodities

capital equipment, refined petroleum, foodstuffs

Imports - partners

China 32.6%, Nigeria 14%, Netherlands 5.5%, US 5.4% (2015)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$6.137 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$5.885 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

Debt - external

$21.17 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$19.15 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home

$19.85 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$118 million (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad

$16.62 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$109 million (31 December 2012 est.)

Exchange rates

cedis (GHC) per US dollar -
3.992 (2016 est.)
3.712 (2015 est.)
3.712 (2014 est.)
2.895 (2013 est.)
1.8 (2012 est.)


Electricity - access

population without electricity: 7,300,000
electrification - total population: 72%
electrification - urban areas: 92%
electrification - rural areas: 50% (2013)

Electricity - production

13 billion kWh (2014 est.)

Electricity - consumption

9.2 billion kWh (2014 est.)

Electricity - exports

500 million kWh (2014 est.)

Electricity - imports

51 million kWh (2014 est.)

Electricity - installed generating capacity

2.847 million kW (2015 est.)

Electricity - from fossil fuels

45.4% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from nuclear fuels

0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants

54.6% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from other renewable sources

0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Crude oil - production

102,400 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Crude oil - exports

98,700 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Crude oil - imports

26,040 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Crude oil - proved reserves

660 million bbl (1 January 2016 es)

Refined petroleum products - production

10,640 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - consumption

83,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)

Refined petroleum products - exports

1,977 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - imports

72,850 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Natural gas - production

50 million cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - consumption

650 million cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - exports

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - imports

600 million cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves

22.65 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy

11 million Mt (2013 est.)


Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 275,570
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 1 (July 2015 est.)

Telephones - mobile cellular

total: 35.008 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 133 (July 2015 est.)

Telephone system

general assessment: primarily microwave radio relay; wireless local loop has been installed; outdated and unreliable fixed-line infrastructure heavily concentrated in Accra
domestic: competition among multiple mobile-cellular providers has spurred growth with a subscribership of more than 130 per 100 persons and rising
international: country code - 233; landing point for the SAT-3/WASC, Main One, and GLO-1 fiber-optic submarine cables that provide connectivity to South Africa, Europe, and Asia; satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); microwave radio relay link to Panaf (2015)

Broadcast media

state-owned TV station, 2 state-owned radio networks; several privately owned TV stations and a large number of privately owned radio stations; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters are accessible; several cable and satellite TV subscriptio (2007)

Internet country code


Internet users

total: 6.181 million
percent of population: 23.5% (July 2015 est.)


National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 4
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 8
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 390,457
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 844,630 mt-km (2015)

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

9G (2016)


10 (2013)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 7
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 3 (2013)


gas 394 km; oil 20 km; refined products 361 km (2013)


total: 947 km
narrow gauge: 947 km 1.067-m gauge (2014)


total: 109,515 km
paved: 13,787 km
unpaved: 95,728 km (2009)


1,293 km (168 km for launches and lighters on Volta, Ankobra, and Tano Rivers; 1,125 km of arterial and feeder waterways on Lake Volta) (2011)

Merchant marine

total: 4
by type: petroleum tanker 1, refrigerated cargo 3
foreign-owned: 2 (Brazil 1, South Korea 1) (2010)

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Takoradi, Tema


Military branches

Ghana Army, Ghana Navy, Ghana Air Force (2012)

Military service age and obligation

18-26 years of age for voluntary military service, with basic education certificate; no conscription; must be HIV/AIDS negative (2012)

Military expenditures

0.56% of GDP (2014)
0.61% of GDP (2013)
0.27% of GDP (2012)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

disputed maritime border between Ghana and Cote d'Ivoire

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 11,419 (Cote d'Ivoire; flight from 2010 post-election fighting) (2016)

Trafficking in persons

current situation: Ghana is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; the trafficking of Ghanians, particularly children, internally is more common than the trafficking of foreign nationals; Ghanian children are subjected to forced labor in fishing, domestic service, street hawking, begging, portering, mining, quarrying, herding, and agriculture, with girls, and to a lesser extent boys, forced into prostitution; Ghanian women, sometimes lured with legitimate job offers, and girls are sex trafficked in West Africa, the Middle East, and Europe; Ghanian men fraudulently recruited for work in the Middle East are subjected to forced labor or prostitution, and a few Ghanian adults have been identified as victims of false labor in the US; women and girls from Vietnam, China, and neighboring West African countries are sex trafficked in Ghana; the country is also a transit point for sex trafficking from West Africa to Europe
tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - Ghana does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; Ghana continued to investigate and prosecute trafficking offenses but was unable to ramp up its anti-trafficking efforts in 2014 because the government failed to provide law enforcement or protection agencies with operating budgets; victim protection efforts decreased in 2014, with significantly fewer victims identified; most child victims were referred to NGO-run facilities, but care for adults was lacking because the government did not provide any support to the country’s Human Trafficking Fund for victim services or its two shelters; anti-trafficking prevention measures increased modestly, including reconvening of the Human Trafficking Management Board, public awareness campaigns on child labor and trafficking, and anti-trafficking TV and radio programs (2015)

Illicit drugs

illicit producer of cannabis for the international drug trade; major transit hub for Southwest and Southeast Asian heroin and, to a lesser extent, South American cocaine destined for Europe and the US; widespread crime and money-laundering problem, but the lack of a well-developed financial infrastructure limits the country's utility as a money-laundering center; significant domestic cocaine and cannabis use