Finland was a province and then a grand duchy under Sweden from the 12th to the 19th centuries, and an autonomous grand duchy of Russia after 1809. It gained complete independence in 1917. During World War II, Finland successfully defended its independence through cooperation with Germany and resisted subsequent invasions by the Soviet Union - albeit with some loss of territory. In the subsequent half century, Finland transformed from a farm/forest economy to a diversified modern industrial economy; per capita income is among the highest in Western Europe. A member of the EU since 1995, Finland was the only Nordic state to join the euro single currency at its initiation in January 1999. In the 21st century, the key features of Finland's modern welfare state are high quality education, promotion of equality, and a national social welfare system - currently challenged by an aging population and the fluctuations of an export-driven economy.



Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Sweden and Russia

Geographic coordinates

64 00 N, 26 00 E

Map references



total: 338,145 sq km
land: 303,815 sq km
water: 34,330 sq km

Area - comparative

slightly more than two times the size of Georgia; slightly smaller than Montana

Land boundaries

total: 2,563 km
border countries (3): Norway 709 km, Sweden 545 km, Russia 1,309 km


1,250 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm (in the Gulf of Finland - 3 nm)
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive fishing zone: 12 nm; extends to continental shelf boundary with Sweden, Estonia, and Russia
continental shelf: 200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation


cold temperate; potentially subarctic but comparatively mild because of moderating influence of the North Atlantic Current, Baltic Sea, and more than 60,000 lakes


mostly low, flat to rolling plains interspersed with lakes and low hills


mean elevation: 164 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m
highest point: Halti (alternatively Haltia, Haltitunturi, Haltiatunturi) 1,328 m

Natural resources

timber, iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, chromite, nickel, gold, silver, limestone

Land use

agricultural land: 7.5%
arable land 7.4%; permanent crops 0%; permanent pasture 0.1%
forest: 72.9%
other: 19.6% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land

690 sq km (2012)

Natural hazards


Environment - current issues

air pollution from manufacturing and power plants contributing to acid rain; water pollution from industrial wastes, agricultural chemicals; habitat loss threatens wildlife populations

Environment - international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note

long boundary with Russia; Helsinki is northernmost national capital on European continent; population concentrated on small southwestern coastal plain

People and Society

Population growth rate

0.38% (2016 est.)


5,498,211 (July 2016 est.)


noun: Finn(s)
adjective: Finnish

Ethnic groups

Finn 93.4%, Swede 5.6%, Russian 0.5%, Estonian 0.3%, Roma 0.1%, Sami 0.1% (2006)


Finnish (official) 89%, Swedish (official) 5.3%, Russian 1.3%, other 4.4% (2014 est.)


Lutheran 73.8%, Orthodox 1.1%, other or none 25.1% (2014 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 16.42% (male 461,432/female 441,244)
15-24 years: 11.6% (male 325,919/female 312,045)
25-54 years: 37.9% (male 1,063,494/female 1,020,194)
55-64 years: 13.42% (male 362,788/female 374,985)
65 years and over: 20.66% (male 492,143/female 643,967) (2016 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 58.3%
youth dependency ratio: 25.9%
elderly dependency ratio: 32.4%
potential support ratio: 3.1% (2015 est.)

Median age

total: 42.4 years
male: 40.8 years
female: 44.3 years (2016 est.)

Birth rate

10.7 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)

Death rate

9.9 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)

Net migration rate

3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)

Population distribution

the vast majority of people are found in the south; the northern interior areas remain sparsely poplulated


urban population: 84.2% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 0.5% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population

HELSINKI (capital) 1.18 million (2015)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2016 est.)

Maternal mortality rate

3 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)

Infant mortality rate

total: 2.5 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 2.7 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 2.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 80.9 years
male: 77.9 years
female: 84 years (2016 est.)

Total fertility rate

1.75 children born/woman (2016 est.)

Health expenditures

9.7% of GDP (2014)

Physicians density

2.91 physicians/1,000 population (2009)

Hospital bed density

5.5 beds/1,000 population (2011)

Drinking water source

urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)

Sanitation facility access

urban: 99.4% of population
rural: 88% of population
total: 97.6% of population
urban: 0.6% of population
rural: 12% of population
total: 2.4% of population (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate


HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS


HIV/AIDS - deaths


Obesity - adult prevalence rate

22.8% (2014)

Education expenditures

7.2% of GDP (2013)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 19 years
male: 18 years
female: 20 years (2014)

Mother's mean age at first birth

28.5 (2012 est.)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24

total: 20.5%
male: 22.8%
female: 18.4% (2014 est.)


Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Finland
conventional short form: Finland
local long form: Suomen tasavalta/Republiken Finland
local short form: Suomi/Finland
etymology: name may derive from the ancient Fenni peoples who are first described as living in northeastern Europe in the first centuries A.D.

Government type

parliamentary republic


name: Helsinki
geographic coordinates: 60 10 N, 24 56 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative divisions

19 regions (maakunnat, singular - maakunta (Finnish); landskapen, singular - landskapet (Swedish)); Aland (Swedish), Ahvenanmaa (Finnish); Etela-Karjala (Finnish), Sodra Karelen (Swedish) [South Karelia]; Etela-Pohjanmaa (Finnish), Sodra Osterbotten (Swedish) [South Ostrobothnia]; Etela-Savo (Finnish), Sodra Savolax (Swedish) [South Savo]; Kanta-Hame (Finnish), Egentliga Tavastland (Swedish); Kainuu (Finnish), Kajanaland (Swedish); Keski-Pohjanmaa (Finnish), Mellersta Osterbotten (Swedish) [Central Ostrobothnia]; Keski-Suomi (Finnish), Mellersta Finland (Swedish) [Central Finland]; Kymenlaakso (Finnish), Kymmenedalen (Swedish); Lappi (Finnish), Lappland (Swedish); Paijat-Hame (Finnish), Paijanne-Tavastland (Swedish); Pirkanmaa (Finnish), Birkaland (Swedish) [Tampere]; Pohjanmaa (Finnish), Osterbotten (Swedish) [Ostrobothnia]; Pohjois-Karjala (Finnish), Norra Karelen (Swedish) [North Karelia]; Pohjois-Pohjanmaa (Finnish), Norra Osterbotten (Swedish) [North Ostrobothnia]; Pohjois-Savo (Finnish), Norra Savolax (Swedish) [North Savo]; Satakunta (Finnish and Swedish); Uusimaa (Finnish), Nyland (Swedish) [Newland]; Varsinais-Suomi (Finnish), Egentliga Finland (Swedish) [Southwest Finland]


6 December 1917 (from Russia)

National holiday

Independence Day, 6 December (1917)


history: previous 1906, 1919; latest drafted 17 June 1997, approved by Parliament 11 June 1999, entered into force 1 March 2000
amendments: proposed by Parliament; passage normally requires simple majority vote in two readings in the first parliamentary session and at least two-thirds majority vote in a single reading by the newly elected Parliament; proposals declared “urgent” by five-sixths of Parliament members can be passed by at least two-thirds majority vote in the first parliamentary session only; amended several times, last in 2012 (2016)

Legal system

civil law system based on the Swedish model

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction


citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Finland
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 6 years


18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Sauli NIINISTO (since 1 March 2012)
head of government: Prime Minister Juha SIPILA (since 28 May 2015)
cabinet: Council of State or Valtioneuvosto appointed by the president, responsible to Parliament
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 6-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 5 February 2012 (next to be held in February 2018); prime minister appointed by Parliament in 2015
election results: percent of vote in first round - Sauli NIINISTO (Kok) 37%, Pekka HAAVISTO (Vihr) 18.8%, Paavo VAYRYNEN (Kesk) 17.5%, Timo SOINI (TF) 9.4%, Paavo LIPPONEN (SDP) 6.7%, Paavo ARHINMAKI (Vas) 5.5%, Eva BIAUDET (SFP) 2.7%, Sari ESSAYAH (KD) 2.5%; Sauli NIINISTO elected president in second round held on 5 February 2012 - NIINISTO 62.6%, HAAVISTO 37.4%; Juha SIPILA appointed prime minister

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Parliament or Eduskunta (200 seats; 199 members directly elected in single- and multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and 1 member in the province of Aland directly elected by simple majority vote; members serve 4-year terms)
elections: last held on 19 April 2015 (next to be held by April 2019)
election results: percent of vote by party - Kesk 21.1%, PS 17.6%, Kok 18.2%, SDP 16.5%, Vihr 8.5%, Vas 7.1%, SFP 4.9%, KD 3.5%, other 2.6%; seats by party - Kesk 49, PS 38, Kok 37, SDP 34, Vihr 15, Vas 12, SFP 9, KD 5, other 1 (Aland Coalition)

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court or Korkein Oikeus (consists of the court president and 18 judges); Supreme Administrative Court (consists of 21 judges including the court president and organized into 3 chambers); note - Finland has a dual judicial system - courts with civil and criminal jurisdiction, and administrative courts with jurisdiction for litigation between individuals and administrative organs of the state and communities
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court and Supreme Administrative Court judges appointed by the president of the republic; judges serve until mandatory retirement at age 65
subordinate courts: 6 Courts of Appeal; 8 regional administrative courts; 27 district courts; special courts for issues relating to markets, labor, insurance, impeachment, land, tenancy, and water rights

National symbol(s)

lion; national colors: blue, white

Political parties and leaders

Center Party or Kesk [Juha SIPILA]
Christian Democrats or KD [Sari ESSAYAH]
Finns Party or PS [Timo SOINI]
Green League or Vihr [Ville NIINISTO]
Left Alliance or Vas [Paavo ARHINMAKI]
National Coalition Party or Kok [Petteri ORPO]
Social Democratic Party or SDP [Antti RINNE]
Swedish People's Party or SFP [Carl HAGLUND]

International organization participation

ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CD, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EITI (implementing country), EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, G-9, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club, PCA, PFP, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMIL, UNMOGIP, UNRWA, UNTSO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Kirsti KAUPPI (since 17 September 2015)
chancery: 3301 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 298-5800
FAX: [1] (202) 298-6030
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Charles C. ADAMS, Jr. (since 3 August 2015)
embassy: Itainen Puistotie 14B, 00140 Helsinki
mailing address: APO AE 09723
telephone: [358] (9) 616250
FAX: [358] (9) 6162 5800

Flag description

white with a blue cross extending to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag); the blue represents the thousands of lakes scattered across the country, while the white is for the snow that covers the land in winter

National anthem

name: "Maamme" (Our Land)
lyrics/music: Johan Ludvig RUNEBERG/Fredrik PACIUS
note: in use since 1848; although never officially adopted by law, the anthem has been popular since it was first sung by a student group in 1848; Estonia's anthem uses the same melody as that of Finland


Industrial production growth rate

0.8% (2016 est.)

Economy - overview

Finland has a highly industrialized, largely free-market economy with per capita GDP almost as high as that of Austria, Belgium, the Netherlands, or Sweden. Trade is important, with exports accounting for over one-third of GDP in recent years.

Finland is historically competitive in manufacturing - principally the wood, metals, engineering, telecommunications, and electronics industries. Finland excels in export of technology for mobile phones as well as promotion of startups in the information

Finland had been one of the best performing economies within the EU before 2009 and its banks and financial markets avoided the worst of global financial crisis. However, the world slowdown hit exports and domestic demand hard in that year, causing Finlan

Finland's main challenges will be reducing high labor costs and boosting demand for its exports. In the long term, Finland must address a rapidly aging population and decreasing productivity in traditional industries that threaten competitiveness, fiscal

GDP (purchasing power parity)

$230 billion (2016 est.)
$227.9 billion (2015 est.)
$227.4 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)

$239.2 billion (2015 est.)

GDP - real growth rate

0.9% (2016 est.)
0.2% (2015 est.)
-0.7% (2014 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP)

$41,800 (2016 est.)
$41,600 (2015 est.)
$41,700 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars

Gross national saving

21.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
20.9% of GDP (2015 est.)
19.9% of GDP (2014 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 55.1%
government consumption: 24.2%
investment in fixed capital: 20.2%
investment in inventories: -0.1%
exports of goods and services: 35.4%
imports of goods and services: -34.8% (2016 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 2.5%
industry: 26.9%
services: 70.6% (2016 est.)

Agriculture - products

barley, wheat, sugar beets, potatoes; dairy cattle; fish


metals and metal products, electronics, machinery and scientific instruments, shipbuilding, pulp and paper, foodstuffs, chemicals, textiles, clothing

Labor force

2.675 million (2016 est.)

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture and forestry: 4.4%
industry: 15.5%
construction: 7.1%
commerce: 21.3%
finance, insurance, and business services: 13.3%
transport and communications: 9.9%
public services: 28.5% (2011)

Unemployment rate

9.1% (2016 est.)
9.3% (2015 est.)

Population below poverty line


Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 3.6%
highest 10%: 24.7% (2007)

Distribution of family income - Gini index

26.8 (2008)
25.6 (1991)


revenues: $127.6 billion
expenditures: $132.7 billion
note: Central Government Budget (2016 est.)

Taxes and other revenues

53.4% of GDP (2016 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

-2.1% of GDP (2016 est.)

Public debt

64.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
62.5% of GDP (2015 est.)
note: data cover general government debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as int

Fiscal year

calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

0.4% (2016 est.)
-0.2% (2015 est.)

Central bank discount rate

0.05% (31 December 2013)
0.3% (31 December 2010)
note: this is the European Central Bank's rate on the marginal lending facility, which offers overnight credit to banks in the euro area

Commercial bank prime lending rate

1.8% (31 December 2016 est.)
2% (31 December 2015 est.)

Stock of narrow money

$130.1 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$121.4 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
note: see entry for the European Union for money supply for the entire euro area; the European Central Bank (ECB) controls monetary policy for the 18 members of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); individual members of the EMU do not control the quantity of

Stock of broad money

$179.8 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$195.3 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

Stock of domestic credit

$355.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$357.9 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares

$158.7 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$143.1 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$118.2 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Current account balance

$199 million (2016 est.)
$316 million (2015 est.)


$57.1 billion (2016 est.)
$61.29 billion (2015 est.)

Exports - commodities

electrical and optical equipment, machinery, transport equipment, paper and pulp, chemicals, basic metals; timber

Exports - partners

Germany 13.9%, Sweden 10.1%, US 7%, Netherlands 6.6%, Russia 5.9%, UK 5.2%, China 4.7% (2015)


$53.5 billion (2016 est.)
$58.5 billion (2015 est.)

Imports - commodities

foodstuffs, petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, transport equipment, iron and steel, machinery, computers, electronic industry products, textile yarn and fabrics, grains

Imports - partners

Germany 17%, Sweden 16%, Russia 11%, Netherlands 9.1%, Denmark 4.1% (2015)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$10.5 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$10.02 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

Debt - external

$544.7 billion (31 March 2016 est.)
$524.7 billion (31 March 2015 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home

$153.5 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$135.9 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad

$140.6 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$141.1 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

Exchange rates

euros (EUR) per US dollar -
0.9214 (2016 est.)
0.885 (2015 est.)
0.885 (2014 est.)
0.7634 (2013 est.)
0.78 (2012 est.)


Electricity - access

electrification - total population: 100% (2016)

Electricity - production

66 billion kWh (2014 est.)

Electricity - consumption

81 billion kWh (2014 est.)

Electricity - exports

3.7 billion kWh (2014 est.)

Electricity - imports

22 billion kWh (2014 est.)

Electricity - installed generating capacity

16 million kW (2014 est.)

Electricity - from fossil fuels

51.6% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from nuclear fuels

16.2% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants

18.9% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from other renewable sources

13.3% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Crude oil - production

0 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Crude oil - exports

0 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Crude oil - imports

226,100 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Crude oil - proved reserves

0 bbl (1 January 2016 es)

Refined petroleum products - production

257,700 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Refined petroleum products - consumption

192,300 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Refined petroleum products - exports

134,900 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Refined petroleum products - imports

109,500 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Natural gas - production

4 million cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - consumption

3.063 billion cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - exports

0 cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - imports

3.063 billion cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves

0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy

48 million Mt (2013 est.)


Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 537,000
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 10 (July 2015 est.)

Telephones - mobile cellular

total: 7.399 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 135 (July 2015 est.)

Telephone system

general assessment: modern system with excellent service
domestic: digital fiber-optic, fixed-line network and an extensive mobile-cellular network provide domestic needs
international: country code - 358; submarine cables provide links to Estonia and Sweden; satellite earth stations - access to Intelsat transmission service via a Swedish satellite earth station, 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions); note - Finland shares the I (2015)

Broadcast media

a mix of publicly operated TV stations and privately owned TV stations; in 2008, the 2 publicly owned TV stations expanded services and the largest private TV station has introduced several special-interest pay-TV channels; cable and satellite multi-chann (2008)

Internet country code

.fi; note - Aland Islands assigned .ax

Internet users

total: 5.074 million
percent of population: 92.6% (July 2015 est.)


National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 3
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 73
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 9,972,333
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 713.484 million mt-km (2015)

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

OH (2016)


148 (2013)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 74
over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 26
1,524 to 2,437 m: 10
914 to 1,523 m: 21
under 914 m: 14 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 74
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 71 (2013)


gas 1,689 km (2010)


total: 5,919 km
broad gauge: 5,919 km 1.524-m gauge (3,067 km electrified) (2014)


total: 454,000 km
highways: 78,000 km (50,000 paved, including 700 km of expressways; 28,000 unpaved)
urban roads: 26,000 km
private and forest roads: 350,000 km (2012)


8,000 km (includes Saimaa Canal system of 3,577 km; southern part leased from Russia; water transport used frequently in the summer and widely replaced with sledges on the ice in winter; there are 187,888 lakes in Finland that cover 31,500 km); Finland also maintains 8,200 km of coastal fairways (2013)

Merchant marine

total: 97
by type: bulk carrier 2, cargo 25, carrier 1, chemical tanker 6, container 3, passenger 5, passenger/cargo 16, petroleum tanker 5, roll on/roll off 31, vehicle carrier 3
foreign-owned: 5 (Cyprus 1, Estonia 2, Iceland 1, Sweden 1)
registered in other countries: 47 (Bahamas 8, Germany 3, Gibraltar 2, Malta 3, Netherlands 13, Panama 2, Sweden 16) (2010)

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Helsinki, Kotka, Naantali, Porvoo, Raahe, Rauma


Military branches

Finnish Defense Forces (FDF): Army (Puolustusvoimat), Navy (Merivoimat; includes Coastal Defense Forces), Air Force (Ilmavoimat) (2013)

Military service age and obligation

18 years of age for male voluntary and compulsory - and female voluntary - national military and nonmilitary service; service obligation 6-12 months; military obligation to age 60 (2012)

Military expenditures

1.37% of GDP (2016 est.)
1.29% of GDP (2015)
1.3% of GDP (2014)
1.41% of GDP (2013)
1.47% of GDP (2012)
1.42% of GDP (2011)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

various groups in Finland advocate restoration of Karelia and other areas ceded to the former Soviet Union, but the Finnish Government asserts no territorial demands

Refugees and internally displaced persons

stateless persons: 2,427 (2015)