The lands that today comprise Croatia were part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire until the close of World War I. In 1918, the Croats, Serbs, and Slovenes formed a kingdom known after 1929 as Yugoslavia. Following World War II, Yugoslavia became a federal independent communist state under the strong hand of Marshal TITO. Although Croatia declared its independence from Yugoslavia in 1991, it took four years of sporadic, but often bitter, fighting before occupying Serb armies were mostly cleared from Croatian lands, along with a majority of Croatia's ethnic Serb population. Under UN supervision, the last Serb-held enclave in eastern Slavonia was returned to Croatia in 1998. The country joined NATO in April 2009 and the EU in July 2013.



Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea, between Bosnia and Herzegovina and Slovenia

Geographic coordinates

45 10 N, 15 30 E

Map references



total: 56,594 sq km
land: 55,974 sq km
water: 620 sq km

Area - comparative

slightly smaller than West Virginia

Land boundaries

total: 2,237 km
border countries (5): Bosnia and Herzegovina 956 km, Hungary 348 km, Montenegro 19 km, Serbia 314 km, Slovenia 600 km


5,835 km (mainland 1,777 km, islands 4,058 km)

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation


Mediterranean and continental; continental climate predominant with hot summers and cold winters; mild winters, dry summers along coast


geographically diverse; flat plains along Hungarian border, low mountains and highlands near Adriatic coastline and islands


mean elevation: 331 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
highest point: Dinara 1,831 m

Natural resources

oil, some coal, bauxite, low-grade iron ore, calcium, gypsum, natural asphalt, silica, mica, clays, salt, hydropower

Land use

agricultural land: 23.7%
arable land 16%; permanent crops 1.5%; permanent pasture 6.2%
forest: 34.4%
other: 41.9% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land

240 sq km (2012)

Natural hazards

destructive earthquakes

Environment - current issues

air pollution (from metallurgical plants) and resulting acid rain is damaging the forests; coastal pollution from industrial and domestic waste; landmine removal and reconstruction of infrastructure consequent to 1992-95 civil strife

Environment - international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note

controls most land routes from Western Europe to Aegean Sea and Turkish Straits; most Adriatic Sea islands lie off the coast of Croatia - some 1,200 islands, islets, ridges, and rocks

People and Society


4,313,707 (July 2016 est.)


noun: Croat(s), Croatian(s)
adjective: Croatian

Ethnic groups

Croat 90.4%, Serb 4.4%, other 4.4% (including Bosniak, Hungarian, Slovene, Czech, and Roma), unspecified 0.8% (2011 est.)


Croatian (official) 95.6%, Serbian 1.2%, other 3% (including Hungarian, Czech, Slovak, and Albanian), unspecified 0.2% (2011 est.)


Roman Catholic 86.3%, Orthodox 4.4%, Muslim 1.5%, other 1.5%, unspecified 2.5%, not religious or atheist 3.8% (2011 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 14.22% (male 315,971/female 297,339)
15-24 years: 11.4% (male 252,285/female 239,634)
25-54 years: 40.75% (male 878,971/female 878,707)
55-64 years: 14.83% (male 312,621/female 326,929)
65 years and over: 18.81% (male 320,418/female 490,832) (2016 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 51.1%
youth dependency ratio: 22.5%
elderly dependency ratio: 28.6%
potential support ratio: 3.5% (2015 est.)

Median age

total: 42.7 years
male: 40.8 years
female: 44.8 years (2016 est.)

Population growth rate

-0.5% (2016 est.)

Birth rate

9 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)

Death rate

12.1 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)

Net migration rate

-1.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)

Population distribution

more of the population lives in the northern half of the country, with approximately a quarter of the populace residing in and around the capital of Zagreb; many of the islands are sparsely populated


urban population: 59% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 0.11% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population

ZAGREB (capital) 687,000 (2015)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female
total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2016 est.)

Maternal mortality rate

8 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)

Infant mortality rate

total: 9.5 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 9.2 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 9.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 75.9 years
male: 72.7 years
female: 79.2 years (2016 est.)

Total fertility rate

1.39 children born/woman (2016 est.)

Health expenditures

7.8% of GDP (2014)

Physicians density

2.84 physicians/1,000 population (2011)

Hospital bed density

5.9 beds/1,000 population (2014)

Drinking water source

urban: 99.6% of population
rural: 99.7% of population
total: 99.6% of population
urban: 0.4% of population
rural: 0.3% of population
total: 0.4% of population (2015 est.)

Sanitation facility access

urban: 97.8% of population
rural: 95.8% of population
total: 97% of population
urban: 2.2% of population
rural: 4.2% of population
total: 3% of population (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate


HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS


HIV/AIDS - deaths


Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: intermediate
vectorborne diseases: tickborne encephalitis (2016)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

25.6% (2014)

Education expenditures

4.6% of GDP (2013)


definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.3%
male: 99.7%
female: 98.9% (2015 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 15 years
male: 15 years
female: 16 years (2014)

Mother's mean age at first birth

28 (2013 est.)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24

total: 45.5%
male: 44.9%
female: 46.4% (2014 est.)


Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Croatia
conventional short form: Croatia
local long form: Republika Hrvatska
local short form: Hrvatska
former: People's Republic of Croatia, Socialist Republic of Croatia
etymology: name derives from the Croats, a Slavic tribe who migrated to the Balkans in the 7th century A.D.

Government type

parliamentary republic


name: Zagreb
geographic coordinates: 45 48 N, 16 00 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative divisions

20 counties (zupanije, zupanija - singular) and 1 city* (grad - singular) with special county status; Bjelovarsko-Bilogorska(Bjelovar-Bilogora), Brodsko-Posavska (Brod-Posavina), Dubrovacko-Neretvanska (Dubrovnik-Neretva), Istarska (Istria), Karlovacka (Karlovac), Koprivnicko-Krizevacka (Koprivnica-Krizevci), Krapinsko-Zagorska (Krapina-Zagorje), Licko-Senjska (Lika-Senj), Medimurska (Medimurje), Osjecko-Baranjska (Osijek-Baranja), Pozesko-Slavonska (Pozega-Slavonia), Primorsko-Goranska (Primorje-Gorski Kotar), Sibensko-Kninska (Sibenik-Knin), Sisacko-Moslavacka (Sisak-Moslavina), Splitsko-Dalmatinska (Split-Dalmatia), Varazdinska (Varazdin), Viroviticko-Podravska (Virovitica-Podravina), Vukovarsko-Srijemska (Vukovar-Syrmia), Zadarska (Zadar), Zagreb*, Zagrebacka (Zagreb county)


25 June 1991 (from Yugoslavia)

National holiday

Independence Day, 8 October (1991) and Statehood Day, 25 June (1991); note - 25 June 1991 was the day the Croatian parliament voted for independence; following a three-month moratorium to allow the European Community to solve the Yugoslav crisis peacefully, parliament adopted a decision on 8 October 1991 to sever constitutional relations with Yugoslavia


history: several previous; latest adopted 22 December 1990
amendments: proposed by at least one-fifth of the members in the Assembly, by the president of the republic, by the Government of Croatia, or by petition of 10 percent of total number of voters; proceedings to amend require majority vote of all Assembly members; passage requires two-thirds majority vote of all Assembly members; passage of amendments by petition requires a majority vote in a popular referendum; promulgation by the Assembly; amended several times, last in 2014 (2016)

Legal system

civil law system influenced by legal heritage of Austria-Hungary; note - Croatian law was fully harmonized with the European Community acquis as of the June 2010 completion of EU accession negotiations

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction


citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Croatia
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years


18 years of age, 16 if employed; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Kolinda GRABAR-KITAROVIC (since 19 February 2015)
head of government: Prime Minister Andrej PLENKOVIC (since 19 October 2016); Deputy Prime Ministers Davor Ivo STIER, Damir KRSTICEVIC, Martina DALIC, Ivan KOVACIC (since 19 October 2016)
cabinet: Council of Ministers named by the prime minister and approved by the Assembly
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 28 December 2014 and 11 January 2015 (next to be held in 2019); the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the president and approved by the Assembly
election results: Kolinda GRABAR-KITAROVIC elected president; percent of vote in the second round - Kolinda GRABAR-KITAROVIC (HDZ) 50.7%, Ivo JOSIPOVIC (Forward Croatia Progressive Alliance) 49.3%

Legislative branch

description: unicameral Assembly or Hrvatski Sabor (151 seats; members directly elected by party-list proportional representation vote using the D'Hondt method with a 5% threshold: 14 seats in each of 10 districts; 8 seats in a single nationwide district for minorities; 3 seats in a single special district for the Croatian diaspora, members elected for 4-year terms)
elections: last held on 11 September 2016 (next to be held in September 2020) - Assembly voted on 20 June 2016 to dissolve on 15 July 2016, resulting in snap elections
election results: percent of vote by party/coalition - NA; number of seats by party/coalition - HDZ coalition 61, People's Coalition 54, Most-NL 13, Only Option 8, minorities 8 (includes SDSS 3), other 7
note: as of December 2016, seats by party - HDZ 56, SDP 37, MOST-NL 14, HNS 9, HSS 5, IDS 3, SDSS 3, HDS 2, PH 2, Human Blockade 2, other 7

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the court president and vice president, 25 civil department justices, and 16 criminal department justices)
judge selection and term of office: president of Supreme Court nominated by president of Croatia and elected by Croatian Sabor for a 4-year term; other Supreme Court justices appointed by National Judicial Council; all judges serve until age 70
subordinate courts: Administrative Court; county, municipal, and specialized courts; note - there is an 11-member Constitutional Court with jurisdiction limited to constitutional issues but is outside Croatia's judicial system

Political parties and leaders

Bloc of Pensioners Together or BUZ [Milivoj SPIKA]
Bridge of Independent Lists or Most-NL [Bozo PETROV]
Croatian Christian Democratic Party or HDS [Goran DODIG]
Croatian Democratic Congress of Slavonia and Baranja or HDSSB [Dragan VULIN]
Croatian Democratic Union or HDZ [Andrej PLENKOVIC]
Croatian Laborists - Labor Party or HL [Tomislav KONCEVSKI]
Croatian Party of Rights - dr. Ante Starcevic or HSP AS [Ivan TEPES]
Croatian Peasant Party or HSS [Kreso BELJAK]
Croatian Pensioner Party or HSU [Silvano HRELJA]
Croatian People's Party - Liberal Democrats or HNS [Ivan VRDOLJAK]
Croatian Social Liberal Party or HSLS [Darinko KOSOR]
Forward Croatia Progressive Alliance [Ivo JOSIPOVIC]
HDZ Coalition [Andrej PLENKOVIC] (includes HDZ, HSLS, HDS) (temporary electoral coalition)
Human Blockade [Ivan SINCIC]
Independent Democratic Serb Party or SDSS [Vojislav STANIMIROVIC]
Independent List of Stipe Petrina or NLSP [Stipe PETRINA]
Istrian Democratic Assembly or IDS [Boris MILETIC]
Istrian Democrats [Damir KAJIN]
Let's Change Croatia or PH [Ivan LOVRINOVIC]
Milan Bandic 365 - Party of Labor and Solidarity or BM365-SRS [Milan BANDIC]
Movement for Successful Croatia or HRAST [Ladislav ILCIC]
People's Coalition [Zoran MILANOVIC] (includes SDP, HNS, HSU, HSS] (temporary electoral coalition)
People's Party - Reformists Party [Radimir CACIC]
Social Democratic Party of Croatia or SDP [Zoran MILANOVIC]
The Only Option Coalition (includes Human Blockade, PH, Always Frankers, Youth Action, Alphabet of Democracy)

Political pressure groups and leaders

other: human rights groups

International organization participation


Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Josip "Josko" PARO (since 20 April 2012)
chancery: 2343 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 588-5899
FAX: [1] (202) 588-8936
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Julieta Valls NOYES (since 5 October 2015)
embassy: 2 Thomas Jefferson Street, 10010 Zagreb
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [385] (1) 661-2200
FAX: [385] (1) 661-2373

Flag description

three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and blue - the Pan-Slav colors - superimposed by the Croatian coat of arms; the coat of arms consists of one main shield (a checkerboard of 13 red and 12 silver (white) fields) surmounted by five smaller shields that form a crown over the main shield; the five small shields represent five historic regions (from left to right): Croatia, Dubrovnik, Dalmatia, Istria, and Slavonia
note: the Pan-Slav colors were inspired by the 19th-century flag of Russia

National symbol(s)

red-white checkerboard; national colors: red, white, blue

National anthem

name: "Lijepa nasa domovino" (Our Beautiful Homeland)
lyrics/music: Antun MIHANOVIC/Josip RUNJANIN
note: adopted 1972; "Lijepa nasa domovino," whose lyrics were written in 1835, served as an unofficial anthem beginning in 1891


Economy - overview

Though still one of the wealthiest of the former Yugoslav republics, Croatia's economy suffered badly during the 1991-95 war. The country's output during that time collapsed, and Croatia missed the early waves of investment in Central and Eastern Europe t

Croatia experienced an abrupt slowdown in the economy in 2008 and has yet to recover; economic growth was stagnant or negative in each year since 2009, but picked up in 2015-16. Difficult problems still remain including a stubbornly high unemployment rate

On 1 July 2013, Croatia joined the EU, following a decade-long application process. Croatia will be a member of the European Exchange Rate Mechanism until it meets the criteria for joining the Economic and Monetary Union and adopts the euro as its currenc

GDP (purchasing power parity)

$94.24 billion (2016 est.)
$92.48 billion (2015 est.)
$90.98 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)

$49.86 billion (2015 est.)

GDP - real growth rate

1.9% (2016 est.)
1.6% (2015 est.)
-0.4% (2014 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP)

$22,400 (2016 est.)
$21,900 (2015 est.)
$21,500 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars

Gross national saving

21.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
23.5% of GDP (2015 est.)
19% of GDP (2014 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 59.1%
government consumption: 19.3%
investment in fixed capital: 19.1%
investment in inventories: -0.4%
exports of goods and services: 50.8%
imports of goods and services: -47.9% (2016 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 4.2%
industry: 26.6%
services: 69.2% (2016 est.)

Agriculture - products

arable crops (wheat, corn, barley, sugar beet, sunflower, rapeseed, alfalfa, clover); vegetables (potatoes, cabbage, onion, tomato, pepper); fruits (apples, plum, mandarins, olives), grapes for wine; livestock (cattle, cows, pigs); dairy products


chemicals and plastics, machine tools, fabricated metal, electronics, pig iron and rolled steel products, aluminum, paper, wood products, construction materials, textiles, shipbuilding, petroleum and petroleum refining, food and beverages, tourism

Industrial production growth rate

3.5% (2016 est.)

Labor force

1.61 million (2016 est.)

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 1.9%
industry: 27.6%
services: 70.4% (2014)

Unemployment rate

15.8% (2016 est.)
17.1% (2015 est.)

Population below poverty line

19.5% (2014 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 3.3%
highest 10%: 27.5% (2008 est.)

Distribution of family income - Gini index

32 (2010)
29 (1998)


revenues: $21.47 billion
expenditures: $22.72 billion (2016 est.)

Taxes and other revenues

43.1% of GDP (2016 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

-2.5% of GDP (2016 est.)

Public debt

88.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
86.7% of GDP (2015 est.)

Fiscal year

calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

-1% (2016 est.)
-0.5% (2015 est.)

Central bank discount rate

7% (31 December 2013)
7% (31 December 2012)

Commercial bank prime lending rate

4.8% (31 December 2016 est.)
5.83% (31 December 2015 est.)

Stock of narrow money

$10.85 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$10.11 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

Stock of broad money

$42.36 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$41.1 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

Stock of domestic credit

$40.07 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$42.41 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares

$36.29 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$33.75 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$33.44 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Current account balance

$1.514 billion (2016 est.)
$2.551 billion (2015 est.)


$12.41 billion (2016 est.)
$11.91 billion (2015 est.)

Exports - commodities

transport equipment, machinery, textiles, chemicals, foodstuffs, fuels

Exports - partners

Italy 13.4%, Slovenia 12.5%, Germany 11.4%, Bosnia and Herzegovina 9.9%, Austria 6.6%, Serbia 4.9% (2015)


$19.98 billion (2016 est.)
$19.28 billion (2015 est.)

Imports - commodities

machinery, transport and electrical equipment; chemicals, fuels and lubricants; foodstuffs

Imports - partners

Germany 15.5%, Italy 13.1%, Slovenia 10.7%, Austria 9.2%, Hungary 7.8% (2015)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$14.46 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$14.97 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

Debt - external

$48.11 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$50.88 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home

$41.17 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$39.74 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad

$8.484 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$8.05 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

Exchange rates

kuna (HRK) per US dollar -
6.971 (2016 est.)
6.8583 (2015 est.)
6.8583 (2014 est.)
5.7482 (2013 est.)
5.85 (2012 est.)


Electricity - access

electrification - total population: 100% (2016)

Electricity - production

13 billion kWh (2014 est.)

Electricity - consumption

16.97 billion kWh (2014 est.)

Electricity - exports

2.866 billion kWh (2014 est.)

Electricity - imports

6.592 billion kWh (2014 est.)

Electricity - installed generating capacity

4.4 million kW (2014 est.)

Electricity - from fossil fuels

37.1% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)

Electricity - from nuclear fuels

7.7% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants

48.5% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)

Electricity - from other renewable sources

6.6% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)

Crude oil - production

12,420 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Crude oil - exports

0 bbl/day (2014 est.)

Crude oil - imports

37,300 bbl/day (2014 est.)

Crude oil - proved reserves

71 million bbl (1 January 2016 es)

Refined petroleum products - production

56,650 bbl/day (2014 est.)

Refined petroleum products - consumption

70,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)

Refined petroleum products - exports

29,060 bbl/day (2014 est.)

Refined petroleum products - imports

32,890 bbl/day (2014 est.)

Natural gas - production

1.363 billion cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - consumption

2.81 billion cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - exports

422 million cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - imports

1.089 billion cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves

24.92 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy

19 million Mt (2013 est.)


Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 1,476,506
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 33 (July 2015 est.)

Telephones - mobile cellular

total: 4.416 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 99 (July 2015 est.)

Telephone system

general assessment: the telecommunications network has improved steadily since the mid-1990s, covering much of what were once inaccessible areas; local lines are digital
domestic: fixed-line teledensity has droped somewhat to about 35 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular telephone subscriptions now even with the population
international: country code - 385; digital international service is provided through the main switch in Zagreb; Croatia participates in the Trans-Asia-Europe fiber-optic project, which consists of 2 fiber-optic trunk connections with Slovenia and a fiber-optic trunk lin (2015)

Broadcast media

the national state-owned public broadcaster, Croatian Radiotelevision, operates 4 terrestrial TV networks, a satellite channel that rebroadcasts programs for Croatians living abroad, and 6 regional TV centers; 2 private broadcasters operate national terre (2012)

Internet country code


Internet users

total: 3.117 million
percent of population: 69.8% (July 2015 est.)


National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 3
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 46
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 1,782,666
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 775,320 mt-km (2015)

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

9A (2016)


69 (2013)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 24
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 6
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 10 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 45
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 6
under 914 m: 38 (2013)


1 (2013)


gas 2,410 km; oil 610 km (2011)


total: 2,722 km
standard gauge: 2,722 km 1.435-m gauge (985 km electrified) (2014)


total: 26,958 km (includes 1,416 km of expressways) (2015)


785 km (2009)

Merchant marine

total: 77
by type: bulk carrier 24, cargo 7, chemical tanker 8, passenger/cargo 27, petroleum tanker 10, refrigerated cargo 1
foreign-owned: 2 (Norway 2)
registered in other countries: 31 (Bahamas 1, Belize 1, Liberia 1, Malta 6, Marshall Islands 12, Panama 2, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 8) (2010)

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Ploce, Rijeka, Sibernik, Split
river port(s): Vukovar (Danube)
oil terminal(s): Omisalj


Military branches

Armed Forces of the Republic of Croatia (Oruzane Snage Republike Hrvatske, OSRH) consists of five major commands directly subordinate to a General Staff: Ground Forces (Hrvatska Kopnena Vojska, HKoV), Naval Forces (Hrvatska Ratna Mornarica, HRM; includes coast guard), Air Force and Air Defense Command (Hrvatsko Ratno Zrakoplovstvo I Protuzracna Obrana), Joint Education and Training Command, Logistics Command; Military Police Force supports each of the three Croatian military forces (2012)

Military service age and obligation

18-27 years of age for voluntary military service; 6-month service obligation (2012)

Military expenditures

1.38% of GDP (2015)
1.41% of GDP (2014)
1.47% of GDP (2013)
1.7% of GDP (2012)
1.77% of GDP (2011)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

dispute remains with Bosnia and Herzegovina over several small sections of the boundary related to maritime access that hinders ratification of the 1999 border agreement; since the breakup of Yugoslavia in the early 1990s, Croatia and Slovenia have each claimed sovereignty over Pirin Bay and four villages, and Slovenia has objected to Croatia's claim of an exclusive economic zone in the Adriatic Sea; in 2009, however Croatia and Slovenia signed a binding international arbitration agreement to define their disputed land and maritime borders, which led to Slovenia lifting its objections to Croatia joining the EU; Slovenia continues to impose a hard border Schengen regime with Croatia, which joined the EU in 2013 but has not yet fulfilled Schengen requirements

Refugees and internally displaced persons

stateless persons: 2,873 (2015)
note: 658,036 estimated refugee and migrant arrivals (2015 - March 2016)

Illicit drugs

transit point along the Balkan route for Southwest Asian heroin to Western Europe; has been used as a transit point for maritime shipments of South American cocaine bound for Western Europe (2008)