A land of vast distances and rich natural resources, Canada became a self-governing dominion in 1867, while retaining ties to the British crown. Economically and technologically, the nation has developed in parallel with the US, its neighbor to the south across the world's longest international border. Canada faces the political challenges of meeting public demands for quality improvements in health care, education, social services, and economic competitiveness, as well as responding to the particular concerns of predominantly francophone Quebec. Canada also aims to develop its diverse energy resources while maintaining its commitment to the environment.



Northern North America, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean on the east, North Pacific Ocean on the west, and the Arctic Ocean on the north, north of the conterminous US

Geographic coordinates

60 00 N, 95 00 W

Map references

North America


total: 9,984,670 sq km
land: 9,093,507 sq km
water: 891,163 sq km

Area - comparative

slightly larger than the US

Land boundaries

total: 8,893 km
border countries (1): US 8,893 km (includes 2,477 km with Alaska)
note: Canada is the world's largest country that borders only one country


202,080 km
note: the Canadian Arctic Archipelago - consisting of 36,563 islands, several of them some of the world's largest - contributes to Canada easily having the longest coastline in the world

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin


varies from temperate in south to subarctic and arctic in north


mostly plains with mountains in west, lowlands in southeast


mean elevation: 487 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mount Logan 5,959 m

Natural resources

iron ore, nickel, zinc, copper, gold, lead, rare earth elements, molybdenum, potash, diamonds, silver, fish, timber, wildlife, coal, petroleum, natural gas, hydropower

Land use

agricultural land: 6.8%
arable land 4.7%; permanent crops 0.5%; permanent pasture 1.6%
forest: 34.1%
other: 59.1% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land

8,700 sq km (2012)

Natural hazards

continuous permafrost in north is a serious obstacle to development; cyclonic storms form east of the Rocky Mountains, a result of the mixing of air masses from the Arctic, Pacific, and North American interior, and produce most of the country's rain and snow east of the mountains
volcanism: the vast majority of volcanoes in Western Canada's Coast Mountains remain dormant

Environment - current issues

metal smelting, coal-burning utilities, and vehicle emissions impacting on agricultural and forest productivity; air pollution and resulting acid rain severely affecting lakes and damaging forests; ocean waters becoming contaminated due to agricultural, industrial, mining, and forestry activities

Environment - international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Marine Life Conservation

Geography - note

second-largest country in world (after Russia) and largest in the Americas; strategic location between Russia and US via north polar route; approximately 90% of the population is concentrated within 160 km (100 mi) of the US border; Canada has more fresh water than any other country and almost 9% of Canadian territory is water; Canada has at least 2 million and possibly over 3 million lakes - that is more than all other countries combined

People and Society

Ethnic groups

Canadian 32.2%, English 19.8%, French 15.5%, Scottish 14.4%, Irish 13.8%, German 9.8%, Italian 4.5%, Chinese 4.5%, North American Indian 4.2%, other 50.9%
note: percentages add up to more than 100% because respondents were able to identify more than one ethnic origin (2011 est.)


35,362,905 (July 2016 est.)


noun: Canadian(s)
adjective: Canadian


English (official) 58.7%, French (official) 22%, Punjabi 1.4%, Italian 1.3%, Spanish 1.3%, German 1.3%, Cantonese 1.2%, Tagalog 1.2%, Arabic 1.1%, other 10.5% (2011 est.)


Catholic 39% (includes Roman Catholic 38.8%, other Catholic .2%), Protestant 20.3% (includes United Church 6.1%, Anglican 5%, Baptist 1.9%, Lutheran 1.5%, Pentecostal 1.5%, Presbyterian 1.4%, other Protestant 2.9%), Orthodox 1.6%, other Christian 6.3%, Muslim 3.2%, Hindu 1.5%, Sikh 1.4%, Buddhist 1.1%, Jewish 1%, other 0.6%, none 23.9% (2011 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 15.44% (male 2,799,758/female 2,661,645)
15-24 years: 12.12% (male 2,204,127/female 2,080,587)
25-54 years: 40.32% (male 7,231,200/female 7,028,692)
55-64 years: 13.94% (male 2,443,452/female 2,484,788)
65 years and over: 18.18% (male 2,863,114/female 3,565,542) (2016 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 47.3%
youth dependency ratio: 23.5%
elderly dependency ratio: 23.8%
potential support ratio: 4.2% (2015 est.)

Median age

total: 42 years
male: 40.8 years
female: 43.3 years (2016 est.)

Population growth rate

0.74% (2016 est.)

Birth rate

10.3 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)

Death rate

8.5 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)

Net migration rate

5.7 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)

Population distribution

vast majority of Canadians are positioned in a discontinuous band within approximately 300 km of the southern border with the United States; the most populated province is Ontario, followed by Quebec and British Columbia


urban population: 81.8% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 1.22% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population

Toronto 5.993 million; Montreal 3.981 million; Vancouver 2.485 million; Calgary 1.337 million; OTTAWA (capital) 1.326 million; Edmonton 1.272 million (2015)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2016 est.)

Maternal mortality rate

7 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)

Infant mortality rate

total: 4.6 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 4.9 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 4.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 81.9 years
male: 79.2 years
female: 84.6 years (2016 est.)

Total fertility rate

1.6 children born/woman (2016 est.)

Health expenditures

10.4% of GDP (2014)

Physicians density

2.07 physicians/1,000 population (2010)

Hospital bed density

2.7 beds/1,000 population (2010)

Drinking water source

urban: 100% of population
rural: 99% of population
total: 99.8% of population
urban: 0% of population
rural: 1% of population
total: 0.2% of population (2015 est.)

Sanitation facility access

urban: 100% of population
rural: 99% of population
total: 99.8% of population
urban: 0% of population
rural: 1% of population
total: 0.2% of population (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate


HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS


HIV/AIDS - deaths

fewer than 400 (2013 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

30.1% (2014)

Education expenditures

5.3% of GDP (2011)

Mother's mean age at first birth

28.1 (2011 est.)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24

total: 13.5%
male: 15%
female: 11.9% (2014 est.)


Country name

conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Canada
etymology: the country name derives from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word "kanata" meaning village or settlement

Government type

federal parliamentary democracy (Parliament of Canada) under a constitutional monarchy; a Commonwealth realm


name: Ottawa
geographic coordinates: 45 25 N, 75 42 W
time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins second Sunday in March; ends first Sunday in November
note: Canada has six time zones

Administrative divisions

10 provinces and 3 territories*; Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, Northwest Territories*, Nova Scotia, Nunavut*, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Saskatchewan, Yukon*


1 July 1867 (union of British North American colonies); 11 December 1931 (recognized by UK per Statute of Westminster)

National holiday

Canada Day, 1 July (1867)


made up of unwritten and written acts, customs, judicial decisions, and traditions dating from 1763; the written part of the constitution consists of the Constitution Act of 29 March 1867, which created a federation of four provinces, and the Constitution Act of 17 April 1982; several amendments to the 1982 Constitution Act, last in 2011 (2016)

Legal system

common law system except in Quebec, where civil law based on the French civil code prevails

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction


citizenship by birth: yes
citizenship by descent: yes
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 3 years


18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

head of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor General David JOHNSTON (since 1 October 2010)
head of government: Prime Minister Justin Pierre James TRUDEAU (Liberal Party) (since 4 November 2015)
cabinet: Federal Ministry chosen by the prime minister usually from among members of his own party sitting in Parliament
elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on the advice of the prime minister for a 5-year term; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition in the House of Commons generally designated prime minister by the governor general

Legislative branch

description: bicameral Parliament or Parlement consists of the Senate or Senat (105 seats; members appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister and can serve until age 75) and the House of Commons or Chambre des Communes (338 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve a maximum of 4-year terms)
elections: House of Commons - last held on 19 October 2015 (next to be held in 2019)
election results: House of Commons - percent of vote by party - Liberal Party 39.5%, Conservative Party 31.9%, NDP 19.7%, Bloc Quebecois 4.7%, Greens 3.4%, other .8%; seats by party - Liberal Party 184, Conservative Party 99, NDP 44, Bloc Quebecois 10, Greens 1

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court of Canada (consists of the chief justice and 8 judges); note - in 1949, Canada abolished all appeals beyond its Supreme Court, which prior to that time, were heard by the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council (in London)
judge selection and term of office: chief justice and judges appointed by the prime minister in council; all judges appointed for life with mandatory retirement at age 75
subordinate courts: subordinate courts: federal level: Federal Court of Appeal; Federal Court; Tax Court; federal administrative tribunals; courts martial; provincial/territorial level: provincial superior, appeals, first instance, and specialized courts; in 1999, the Nunavut Court - a circuit court with the power of a provincial superior court as well as a territorial court - was established to serve isolated settlements

Political parties and leaders

Bloc Quebecois [Rheal FORTIN (interim leader)]
Conservative Party of Canada or CPC [Rona AMBROSE (interim leader)]
Green Party [Elizabeth MAY]
Liberal Party [Justin TRUDEAU]
New Democratic Party or NDP [Thomas MULCAIR]

Political pressure groups and leaders

other: agricultural sector; automobile industry; business groups; chemical industry; commercial banks; communications sector; energy industry; environmentalists; public administration groups; steel industry; trade unions

International organization participation

ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), APEC, Arctic Council, ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), Australia Group, BIS, C, CD, CDB, CE (observer), EAPC, EBRD, EITI (implementing country), FAO, FATF, G-7, G-8, G-10, G-20, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NAFTA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS, OECD, OIF, OPCW, OSCE, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club, PCA, PIF (partner), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNMISS, UNRWA, UNTSO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador David Brookes MACNAUGHTON (since 2 March 2016)
chancery: 501 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20001
telephone: [1] (202) 682-1740
FAX: [1] (202) 682-7726
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Dallas, Denver, Detroit, Los Angeles, Miami, Minneapolis, New York, San Francisco/Silicon Valley, Seattle
trade office(s): Houston, Palo Alto (CA), San Diego; note - there are trade offices in the Consulates General

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Bruce A. HEYMAN (since 8 April 2014)
embassy: 490 Sussex Drive, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 1G8
mailing address: P. O. Box 5000, Ogdensburg, NY 13669-0430; P.O. Box 866, Station B, Ottawa, Ontario K1P 5T1
telephone: [1] (613) 688-5335
FAX: [1] (613) 688-3082
consulate(s) general: Calgary, Halifax, Montreal, Quebec City, Toronto, Vancouver

Flag description

two vertical bands of red (hoist and fly side, half width) with white square between them; an 11-pointed red maple leaf is centered in the white square; the maple leaf has long been a Canadian symbol

National symbol(s)

maple leaf, beaver; national colors: red, white

National anthem

name: "O Canada"
lyrics/music: Adolphe-Basile ROUTHIER [French], Robert Stanley WEIR [English]/Calixa LAVALLEE
note: adopted 1980; originally written in 1880, "O Canada" served as an unofficial anthem many years before its official adoption; the anthem has French and English versions whose lyrics differ; as a Commonwealth realm, in addition to the national anthem, "God Save the Queen" serves as the royal anthem (see United Kingdom)


Economy - overview

As a high-tech industrial society in the trillion-dollar class, Canada resembles the US in its market-oriented economic system, pattern of production, and high living standards. Since World War II, the impressive growth of the manufacturing, mining, and s

The 1989 US-Canada Free Trade Agreement and the 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement (which includes Mexico) touched off a dramatic increase in trade and economic integration with the US, its principal trading partner. Canada enjoys a substantial trad

Given its abundant natural resources, highly skilled labor force, and modern capital plant, Canada enjoyed solid economic growth from 1993 through 2007. Buffeted by the global economic crisis, the economy dropped into a sharp recession in the final months

GDP (purchasing power parity)

$1.674 trillion (2016 est.)
$1.655 trillion (2015 est.)
$1.638 trillion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)

$1.532 trillion (2015 est.)

GDP - real growth rate

1.2% (2016 est.)
1.1% (2015 est.)
2.5% (2014 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP)

$46,200 (2016 est.)
$46,200 (2015 est.)
$46,100 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars

Gross national saving

19.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
20.4% of GDP (2015 est.)
22% of GDP (2014 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 57.9%
government consumption: 21.3%
investment in fixed capital: 22.2%
investment in inventories: 0.3%
exports of goods and services: 31.9%
imports of goods and services: -33.6% (2016 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 1.6%
industry: 27.7%
services: 70.7% (2016 est.)

Agriculture - products

wheat, barley, oilseed, tobacco, fruits, vegetables; dairy products; fish; forest products


transportation equipment, chemicals, processed and unprocessed minerals, food products, wood and paper products, fish products, petroleum, natural gas

Industrial production growth rate

-0.3% (2016 est.)

Labor force

19.42 million (2016 est.)

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 2%
manufacturing: 13%
construction: 6%
services: 76%
other: 3% (2006 est.)

Unemployment rate

7.1% (2016 est.)
6.9% (2015 est.)

Population below poverty line

note: this figure is the Low Income Cut-Off, a calculation that results in higher figures than found in many comparable economies; Canada does not have an official poverty line (2008 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 2.6%
highest 10%: 24.8% (2000)

Distribution of family income - Gini index

32.1 (2005)
31.5 (1994)


revenues: $594.7 billion
expenditures: $632.4 billion (2016 est.)

Taxes and other revenues

38.8% of GDP (2016 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

-2.5% of GDP (2016 est.)

Public debt

98.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
98.6% of GDP (2015 est.)
note: figures are for gross general government debt, as opposed to net federal debt; gross general government debt includes both intragovernmental debt and the debt of public entities at the sub-national level

Fiscal year

1 April - 31 March

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

1.6% (2016 est.)
1.1% (2015 est.)

Central bank discount rate

1% (31 December 2010)
0.25% (31 December 2009)

Commercial bank prime lending rate

2.7% (31 December 2016 est.)
2.78% (31 December 2015 est.)

Stock of narrow money

$635.5 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$568.8 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

Stock of broad money

$1.486 trillion (31 December 2014 est.)
$1.47 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)

Stock of domestic credit

$2.932 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
$2.642 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares

$1.593 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)
$2.095 trillion (31 December 2014 est.)
$2.114 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)

Current account balance

-$56.73 billion (2016 est.)
-$48.97 billion (2015 est.)


$402.4 billion (2016 est.)
$411 billion (2015 est.)

Exports - commodities

motor vehicles and parts, industrial machinery, aircraft, telecommunications equipment; chemicals, plastics, fertilizers; wood pulp, timber, crude petroleum, natural gas, electricity, aluminum

Exports - partners

US 76.7% (2015)


$419 billion (2016 est.)
$428.7 billion (2015 est.)

Imports - commodities

machinery and equipment, motor vehicles and parts, crude oil, chemicals, electricity, durable consumer goods

Imports - partners

US 53.1%, China 12.2%, Mexico 5.8% (2015)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$82.5 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$79.75 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

Debt - external

$1.608 trillion (31 March 2016 est.)
$1.55 trillion (31 March 2015 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home

$1.099 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.065 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad

$1.334 trillion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.256 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)

Exchange rates

Canadian dollars (CAD) per US dollar -
1.331 (2016 est.)
1.2788 (2015 est.)
1.2788 (2014 est.)
1.0298 (2013 est.)
0.9992 (2012 est.)


Electricity - access

electrification - total population: 100% (2016)

Electricity - production

633 billion kWh (2014 est.)

Electricity - consumption

528 billion kWh (2014 est.)

Electricity - exports

58.4 billion kWh (2014 est.)

Electricity - imports

13 billion kWh (2014 est.)

Electricity - installed generating capacity

137 million kW (2014 est.)

Electricity - from fossil fuels

25.7% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from nuclear fuels

10% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants

55.8% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from other renewable sources

8.3% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Crude oil - production

3.677 million bbl/day (2015 est.)

Crude oil - exports

3.21 million bbl/day (2015 est.)

Crude oil - imports

581,300 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Crude oil - proved reserves

171 billion bbl (1 January 2016 es)

Refined petroleum products - production

1.868 million bbl/day (2015 est.)

Refined petroleum products - consumption

2.406 million bbl/day (2015 est.)

Refined petroleum products - exports

491,900 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Refined petroleum products - imports

251,900 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Natural gas - production

151.5 billion cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - consumption

116.5 billion cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - exports

77.96 billion cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - imports

21.89 billion cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves

1.996 trillion cu m (1 January 2016 es)

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy

564 million Mt (2013 est.)


Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 15.902 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 45 (July 2015 est.)

Telephones - mobile cellular

total: 29.39 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 84 (July 2015 est.)

Telephone system

general assessment: excellent service provided by modern technology
domestic: domestic satellite system with about 300 earth stations
international: country code - 1; submarine cables provide links to the US and Europe; satellite earth stations - 7 (5 Intelsat - 4 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean, and 2 Intersputnik - Atlantic Ocean region) (2011)

Broadcast media

2 public TV broadcasting networks each with a large number of network affiliates; several private-commercial networks also with multiple network affiliates; overall, about 150 TV stations; multi-channel satellite and cable systems provide access to a wide (2008)

Internet country code


Internet users

total: 31.053 million
percent of population: 88.5% (July 2015 est.)


National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 51
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 879
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 80,228,301
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 2,074,830,881 mt-km (2015)

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

C (2016)


1,467 (2013)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 523
over 3,047 m: 21
2,438 to 3,047 m: 19
1,524 to 2,437 m: 147
914 to 1,523 m: 257
under 914 m: 79 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 944
1,524 to 2,437 m: 75
914 to 1,523 m: 385
under 914 m: 484 (2013)


26 (2013)


gas and liguid petroleum 100,000 km (2013)


total: 77,932 km
standard gauge: 77,932 km 1.435-m gauge (2014)


total: 1,042,300 km
paved: 415,600 km (includes 17,000 km of expressways)
unpaved: 626,700 km (2011)


636 km (Saint Lawrence Seaway of 3,769 km, including the Saint Lawrence River of 3,058 km, shared with United States) (2011)

Merchant marine

total: 181
by type: bulk carrier 62, cargo 15, carrier 1, chemical tanker 15, combination ore/oil 1, container 2, passenger 5, passenger/cargo 63, petroleum tanker 11, roll on/roll off 6
foreign-owned: 19 (Estonia 1, France 1, Netherlands 1, Norway 4, Sweden 2, US 10)
registered in other countries: 225 (Australia 5, Bahamas 96, Barbados 11, Cambodia 2, Cyprus 2, Honduras 1, Hong Kong 77, Liberia 2, Malta 5, Marshall Islands 8, Norway 1, Panama 6, Spain 4, Vanuatu 5) (2010)

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Halifax, Saint John (New Brunswick), Vancouver
river and lake port(s): Montreal, Quebec City, Sept-Isles (St. Lawrence); Fraser River Port (Fraser); Hamilton (Lake Ontario)
oil terminal(s): Lower Lakes terminal
dry bulk cargo port(s): Port-Cartier (iron ore and grain),
container port(s): Montreal (1,362,975), Vancouver (2,507,032)(2011)
LNG terminal(s) (import): Saint John


Military branches

Canadian Forces: Canadian Army, Royal Canadian Navy, Royal Canadian Air Force, Canadian Joint Operations Command (2015)

Military service age and obligation

17 years of age for voluntary male and female military service (with parental consent); 16 years of age for Reserve and Military College applicants; Canadian citizenship or permanent residence status required; maximum 34 years of age; service obligation 3-9 years (2012)

Military expenditures

1% of GDP (2015)
1% of GDP (2014)
1% of GDP (2013)
1.24% of GDP (2012)
1.31% of GDP (2011)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

managed maritime boundary disputes with the US at Dixon Entrance, Beaufort Sea, Strait of Juan de Fuca, and the Gulf of Maine, including the disputed Machias Seal Island and North Rock; Canada and the United States dispute how to divide the Beaufort Sea and the status of the Northwest Passage but continue to work cooperatively to survey the Arctic continental shelf; US works closely with Canada to intensify security measures for monitoring and controlling legal and illegal movement of people, transport, and commodities across the international border; sovereignty dispute with Denmark over Hans Island in the Kennedy Channel between Ellesmere Island and Greenland; commencing the collection of technical evidence for submission to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf in support of claims for continental shelf beyond 200 nm from its declared baselines in the Arctic, as stipulated in Article 76, paragraph 8, of the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 13,666 (Colombia); 11,415 (China); 8,807 (Haiti); 8,807 (Sri Lanka); 7,207 (Pakistan); 6,414 (Mexico) (2015)

Illicit drugs

illicit producer of cannabis for the domestic drug market and export to US; use of hydroponics technology permits growers to plant large quantities of high-quality marijuana indoors; increasing ecstasy production, some of which is destined for the US; vulnerable to narcotics money laundering because of its mature financial services sector