Most Cambodians consider themselves to be Khmers, descendants of the Angkor Empire that extended over much of Southeast Asia and reached its zenith between the 10th and 13th centuries. Attacks by the Thai and Cham (from present-day Vietnam) weakened the empire, ushering in a long period of decline. The king placed the country under French protection in 1863, and it became part of French Indochina in 1887. Following Japanese occupation in World War II, Cambodia gained full independence from France in 1953. In April 1975, after a seven-year struggle, communist Khmer Rouge forces captured Phnom Penh and evacuated all cities and towns. At least 1.5 million Cambodians died from execution, forced hardships, or starvation during the Khmer Rouge regime under POL POT. A December 1978 Vietnamese invasion drove the Khmer Rouge into the countryside, began a 10-year Vietnamese occupation, and touched off almost 13 years of civil war.
The 1991 Paris Peace Accords mandated democratic elections and a cease-fire, which was not fully respected by the Khmer Rouge. UN-sponsored elections in 1993 helped restore some semblance of normalcy under a coalition government. Factional fighting in 1997 ended the first coalition government, but a second round of national elections in 1998 led to the formation of another coalition government and renewed political stability. The remaining elements of the Khmer Rouge surrendered in early 1999. Some of the surviving Khmer Rouge leaders have been tried or are awaiting trial for crimes against humanity by a hybrid UN-Cambodian tribunal supported by international assistance. Elections in July 2003 were relatively peaceful, but it took one year of negotiations between contending political parties before a coalition government was formed. In October 2004, King Norodom SIHANOUK abdicated the throne and his son, Prince Norodom SIHAMONI, was selected to succeed him. The most recent local (Commune Council) elections were held in Cambodia in 2012, with little of the preelection violence that preceded prior elections. National elections in July 2013 were disputed, with the opposition - the Cambodian National Rescue Party (CNRP) - boycotting the National Assembly. The political impasse was ended nearly a year later, with the CNRP agreeing to enter parliament in exchange for ruling party commitments to electoral and legislative reforms.



Southeastern Asia, bordering the Gulf of Thailand, between Thailand, Vietnam, and Laos

Geographic coordinates

13 00 N, 105 00 E

Map references

Southeast Asia


total: 181,035 sq km
land: 176,515 sq km
water: 4,520 sq km

Area - comparative

slightly smaller than Oklahoma

Land boundaries

total: 2,530 km
border countries (3): Laos 555 km, Thailand 817 km, Vietnam 1,158 km


443 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm


tropical; rainy, monsoon season (May to November); dry season (December to April); little seasonal temperature variation


mostly low, flat plains; mountains in southwest and north


mean elevation: 126 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Gulf of Thailand 0 m
highest point: Phnum Aoral 1,810 m

Natural resources

oil and gas, timber, gemstones, iron ore, manganese, phosphates, hydropower potential, arable land

Land use

agricultural land: 32.1%
arable land 22.7%; permanent crops 0.9%; permanent pasture 8.5%
forest: 56.5%
other: 11.4% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land

3,540 sq km (2012)

Natural hazards

monsoonal rains (June to November); flooding; occasional droughts

Environment - current issues

illegal logging activities throughout the country and strip mining for gems in the western region along the border with Thailand have resulted in habitat loss and declining biodiversity (in particular, destruction of mangrove swamps threatens natural fisheries); soil erosion; in rural areas, most of the population does not have access to potable water; declining fish stocks because of illegal fishing and overfishing

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea

Geography - note

a land of paddies and forests dominated by the Mekong River and Tonle Sap (Southeast Asia's largest freshwater lake)

People and Society

Ethnic groups

Khmer 97.6%, Cham 1.2%, Chinese 0.1%, Vietnamese 0.1%, other 0.9% (2013 est.)

Birth rate

23.4 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)


note: estimates for this country take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2016 est.)


noun: Cambodian(s)
adjective: Cambodian


Khmer (official) 96.3%, other 3.7% (2008 est.)


Buddhist (official) 96.9%, Muslim 1.9%, Christian 0.4%, other 0.8% (2008 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 31.24% (male 2,515,435/female 2,468,855)
15-24 years: 19.02% (male 1,501,070/female 1,533,500)
25-54 years: 40.18% (male 3,139,851/female 3,271,077)
55-64 years: 5.43% (male 342,063/female 524,114)
65 years and over: 4.14% (male 248,454/female 412,804) (2016 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 55.6%
youth dependency ratio: 49.2%
elderly dependency ratio: 6.4%
potential support ratio: 15.6% (2015 est.)

Median age

total: 24.9 years
male: 24.2 years
female: 25.6 years (2016 est.)

Population growth rate

1.56% (2016 est.)

Death rate

7.6 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)

Net migration rate

-0.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)


urban population: 20.7% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 2.65% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population

PHNOM PENH (capital) 1.731 million (2015)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.65 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.6 male(s)/female
total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2016 est.)

Maternal mortality rate

161 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)

Infant mortality rate

total: 48.7 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 55.2 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 41.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 64.5 years
male: 62 years
female: 67.1 years (2016 est.)

Total fertility rate

2.56 children born/woman (2016 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

50.5% (2010/11)

Health expenditures

5.7% of GDP (2014)

Physicians density

0.17 physicians/1,000 population (2012)

Hospital bed density

0.7 beds/1,000 population (2011)

Drinking water source

urban: 100% of population
rural: 69.1% of population
total: 75.5% of population
urban: 0% of population
rural: 30.9% of population
total: 24.5% of population (2015 est.)

Sanitation facility access

urban: 88.1% of population
rural: 30.5% of population
total: 42.4% of population
urban: 11.9% of population
rural: 69.5% of population
total: 57.6% of population (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate

0.63% (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS

74,100 (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths

2,000 (2015 est.)

Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, Japanese encephalitis, and malaria (2016)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

2.9% (2014)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

23.9% (2014)

Education expenditures

1.9% of GDP (2014)


definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 77.2%
male: 84.5%
female: 70.5% (2015 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 11 years
male: 11 years
female: 10 years (2008)

Mother's mean age at first birth

note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2014 est.)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24

total: 0.5%
male: 0.7%
female: 0.4%
note: according to official statistics (2010 est.)


Country name

conventional long form: Kingdom of Cambodia
conventional short form: Cambodia
local long form: Preahreacheanachakr Kampuchea (phonetic transliteration)
local short form: Kampuchea Kampuchea
former: Khmer Republic, Democratic Kampuchea, People's Republic of Kampuchea, State of Cambodia
etymology: the English name Cambodia is an anglicization of the French Cambodge, which is the French transliteration of the native name Kampuchea

Government type

parliamentary constitutional monarchy


name: Phnom Penh
geographic coordinates: 11 33 N, 104 55 E
time difference: UTC+7 (12 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions

24 provinces (khett, singular and plural) and 1 municipality (krong, singular and plural)
provinces: Banteay Meanchey, Battambang, Kampong Cham, Kampong Chhnang, Kampong Speu, Kampong Thom, Kampot, Kandal, Kep, Koh Kong, Kratie, Mondolkiri, Oddar Meanchey, Pailin, Preah Vihear, Prey Veng, Pursat, Ratanakiri, Siem Reap, Sihanoukville, Stung Treng, Svay Rieng, Takeo, Tbong Khmum
municipalities: Phnom Penh (Phnum Penh)


9 November 1953 (from France)

National holiday

Independence Day, 9 November (1953)


previous 1947; latest promulgated 21 September 1993; amended 1999, 2008, 2014 (2016)

Legal system

civil law system (influenced by the UN Transitional Authority in Cambodia) customary law, Communist legal theory, and common law

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction


citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Cambodia
dual citizenship recognized: yes
residency requirement for naturalization: 7 years


18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: King Norodom SIHAMONI (since 29 October 2004)
head of government: Prime Minister HUN SEN (since 14 January 1985); Permanent Deputy Prime Minister MEN SAM AN (since 25 September 2008); Deputy Prime Ministers SAR KHENG (since 3 February 1992), SOK AN, TEA BANH, HOR NAMHONG (all since 16 July 2004), BIN CHHIN (since 5 September 2007), KEAT CHHON, YIM CHHAI LY (since 24 September 2008), KE KIMYAN (since 12 March 2009)
cabinet: Council of Ministers named by the prime minister and appointed by the monarch
elections/appointments: monarch chosen by the 9-member, Royal Council of the Throne from among all eligible males of royal descent; following legislative elections, a member of the majority party or majority coalition named prime minister by the Chairman of the National Assembly and appointed by the monarch

Legislative branch

description: bicameral Parliament of Cambodia consists of the Senate (61 seats; 57 indirectly elected by parliamentarians and commune councils, 2 indirectly elected by the National Assembly, and 2 appointed by the monarch; members serve 6-year terms) and the National Assembly (123 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)
note: two seats will be added to the National Assembly in 2018, for a total of 125
elections: Senate - last held on 4 February 2012 (next to be held in 2018); National Assembly - last held on 28 July 2013 (next to be held in July 2018)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - CPP 77.8%, SRP 22.2%; seats by party - CPP 46, SRP 11; National Assembly - percent of vote by party - CPP 48.8%, CNRP 44.5%, other 6.7%; seats by party - CPP 68, CNRP 55

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Council (organized into 5- and 9-judge panels and includes a court chief and deputy chief); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 members); note - in 1997, the Cambodian Government requested UN assistance in establishing trials to prosecute former Khmer Rouge senior leaders for crimes against humanity committed during the 1975-1979 Khmer Rouge regime; the Extraordinary Chambers of the Courts in Cambodia (also called the Khmer Rouge Tribunal) were established and began hearings for the first case in 2009; court proceeding were ongoing in 2016
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court and Constitutional Council judge candidates recommended by the Supreme Council of Magistracy, a 17-member body chaired by the monarch and includes other high-level judicial officers; judges of both courts appointed by the monarch; Supreme Court judges appointed for life; Constitutional Council judges appointed for 9-year terms with one-third of the court renewed every 3 years
subordinate courts: Appellate Court; provincial and municipal courts; Military Court

Political parties and leaders

Cambodian National Rescue Party or CNRP [SAM RANGSI, also spelled SAM RAINSY] (a July 2012 merger between the Sam Rangsi Party or SRP and the former Human Rights Party or HRP [KHEM SOKHA, also spelled KEM SOKHA])
Cambodian People's Party or CPP [HUN SEN]

Political pressure groups and leaders

Partnership for Transparency Fund or PTF (anti-corruption organization)
Students Movement for Democracy
The Committee for Free and Fair Elections or Comfrel
other: human rights organizations; labor unions; youth groups

International organization participation


Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador CHUM BUN RONG (since 3 August 2015)
chancery: 4530 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20011
telephone: [1] (202) 726-7742
FAX: [1] (202) 726-8381

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador William A. HEIDT (since 2 December 2015)
mailing address: Unit 8166, Box P, APO AP 96546
telephone: [855] (23) 728-000
FAX: [855] (23) 728-600

Flag description

three horizontal bands of blue (top), red (double width), and blue with a white three-towered temple representing Angkor Wat outlined in black in the center of the red band; red and blue are traditional Cambodian colors
note: only national flag to incorporate an actual building into its design

National symbol(s)

Angkor Wat temple, kouprey (wild ox); national colors: red, blue

National anthem

name: "Nokoreach" (Royal Kingdom)
lyrics/music: CHUON NAT/F. PERRUCHOT and J. JEKYLL
note: adopted 1941, restored 1993; the anthem, based on a Cambodian folk tune, was restored after the defeat of the Communist regime


Economy - overview

Cambodia has experienced strong economic growth over the last decade; GDP grew at an average annual rate of over 8% between 2000 and 2010 and at least 7% since 2011. The tourism, garment, construction and real estate, and agriculture sectors accounted for

Cambodia remains one of the poorest countries in Asia and long-term economic development remains a daunting challenge, inhibited by endemic corruption, limited human resources, high income inequality, and poor job prospects. As of 2012, approximately 2.66

The Cambodian Government has been working with bilateral and multilateral donors, including the Asian Development Bank, the World Bank and IMF, to address the country's many pressing needs; more than 30% of the government budget comes from donor assistanc

GDP (purchasing power parity)

$58.94 billion (2016 est.)
$55.09 billion (2015 est.)
$51.47 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)

$19.37 billion (2015 est.)

GDP - real growth rate

7% (2016 est.)
7% (2015 est.)
7.1% (2014 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP)

$3,700 (2016 est.)
$3,500 (2015 est.)
$3,400 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars

Gross national saving

12.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
11.8% of GDP (2015 est.)
11.1% of GDP (2014 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 78.5%
government consumption: 5.4%
investment in fixed capital: 21%
investment in inventories: 1.6%
exports of goods and services: 64.7%
imports of goods and services: -71.2% (2016 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 26.7%
industry: 29.8%
services: 43.5% (2016 est.)

Agriculture - products

rice, rubber, corn, vegetables, cashews, cassava (manioc, tapioca), silk


tourism, garments, construction, rice milling, fishing, wood and wood products, rubber, cement, gem mining, textiles

Industrial production growth rate

8.3% (2016 est.)

Labor force

6.643 million (2016 est.)

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 48.7%
industry: 19.9%
services: 31.5% (2013 est.)

Unemployment rate

0.3% (2013 est.)
0.2% (2012 est.)
note: according to official statistics; underemployment is high

Population below poverty line

17.7% (2012 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 2%
highest 10%: 28% (2013 est.)

Distribution of family income - Gini index

37.9 (2008 est.)
41.9 (2004 est.)


revenues: $3.388 billion
expenditures: $3.562 billion (2016 est.)

Taxes and other revenues

17.5% of GDP (2016 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

-0.9% of GDP (2016 est.)

Public debt

33.9% of GDP (2014 est.)
33.4% of GDP (2013 est.)

Fiscal year

calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

2.8% (2016 est.)
1.2% (2015 est.)

Central bank discount rate

NA% (31 December 2012)
5.25% (31 December 2007)

Commercial bank prime lending rate

11.8% (31 December 2016 est.)
11.71% (31 December 2015 est.)

Stock of narrow money

$1.785 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.602 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

Stock of broad money

$14.38 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$12.12 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

Stock of domestic credit

$11.72 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$9.776 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares


Current account balance

-$1.969 billion (2016 est.)
-$1.889 billion (2015 est.)


$8.762 billion (2016 est.)
$8.453 billion (2015 est.)

Exports - commodities

clothing, timber, rubber, rice, fish, tobacco, footwear

Exports - partners

US 23.1%, UK 8.8%, Germany 8.2%, Japan 7.4%, Canada 6.7%, China 5.1%, Vietnam 5%, Thailand 4.9%, Netherlands 4.1% (2015)


$12.32 billion (2016 est.)
$11.92 billion (2015 est.)

Imports - commodities

petroleum products, cigarettes, gold, construction materials, machinery, motor vehicles, pharmaceutical products

Imports - partners

Thailand 28.7%, China 22.2%, Vietnam 16.4%, Hong Kong 6.1%, Singapore 5.7% (2015)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$8.477 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$7.376 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

Debt - external

$8.46 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$7.483 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home

$29.17 billion (2014 est.)

Exchange rates

riels (KHR) per US dollar -
4,066 (2016 est.)
4,067.8 (2015 est.)
4,067.8 (2014 est.)
4,037.5 (2013 est.)
4,033 (2012 est.)


Electricity - production

3 billion kWh (2014 est.)

Electricity - access

population without electricity: 9,900,000
electrification - total population: 34%
electrification - urban areas: 97%
electrification - rural areas: 18% (2013)

Electricity - consumption

4.1 billion kWh (2014 est.)

Electricity - exports

0 kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - imports

1.8 billion kWh (2014 est.)

Electricity - installed generating capacity

1.4 million kW (2014 est.)

Electricity - from fossil fuels

32.7% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)

Electricity - from nuclear fuels

0% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants

57.4% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)

Electricity - from other renewable sources

10% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)

Crude oil - production

0 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Crude oil - exports

0 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Crude oil - imports

0 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Crude oil - proved reserves

0 bbl (1 January 2016 es)

Refined petroleum products - production

0 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - consumption

36,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)

Refined petroleum products - exports

0 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - imports

36,240 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Natural gas - production

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - consumption

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - exports

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - imports

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves

0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy

6.5 million Mt (2013 est.)


Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 256,387
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 2 (July 2015 est.)

Telephones - mobile cellular

total: 20.851 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 133 (July 2015 est.)

Telephone system

general assessment: adequate fixed-line and/or cellular service in Phnom Penh and other provincial cities; mobile-cellular phone systems are widely used in urban areas to bypass deficiencies in the fixed-line network; mobile-phone coverage is rapidly expanding in rural areas
domestic: fixed-line connections stand at about 2 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular usage, aided by competition among service providers, has increased to over 130 per 100 persons
international: country code - 855; adequate but expensive landline and cellular service available to all countries from Phnom Penh and major provincial cities; satellite earth station - 1 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean region) (2015)

Broadcast media

mixture of state-owned, joint public-private, and privately owned broadcast media; 9 TV broadcast stations with most operating on multiple channels, including 1 state-operated station broadcasting from multiple locations, 6 stations either jointly operate (2009)

Internet country code


Internet users

total: 2.985 million
percent of population: 19% (July 2015 est.)


National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 4
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 10
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 1,103,880
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 2,301,260 mt-km (2015)

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

XU (2016)


16 (2013)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 6
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 10
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 7
under 914 m: 1 (2013)


1 (2013)


total: 642 km
narrow gauge: 642 km 1.000-m gauge
note: under restoration (2014)


total: 44,709 km
paved: 3,607 km
unpaved: 41,102 km (2010)


3,700 km (mainly on Mekong River) (2012)

Merchant marine

total: 544
by type: bulk carrier 38, cargo 459, carrier 7, chemical tanker 4, container 4, liquefied gas 1, passenger 1, passenger/cargo 6, petroleum tanker 8, refrigerated cargo 11, roll on/roll off 4, vehicle carrier 1
foreign-owned: 352 (Belgium 1, Canada 2, China 177, Cyprus 4, Egypt 4, Estonia 1, French Polynesia 1, Gabon 1, Greece 2, Hong Kong 10, Indonesia 2, Ireland 1, Japan 1, Lebanon 5, Russia 50, Singapore 3, South Korea 10, Syria 22, Taiwan 1, Turkey 15, UAE 2, UK 1, Ukraine 35, (2010)

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Sihanoukville (Kampong Saom)
river port(s): Phnom Penh (Mekong)


Military branches

Royal Cambodian Armed Forces: Royal Cambodian Army, Royal Khmer Navy, Royal Cambodian Air Force; the Royal Cambodian Gendarmerie is the military police force responsible for internal security; the National Committee for Maritime Security performs Coast Guard functions and has representation from military and civilian agencies (2016)

Military service age and obligation

18 is the legal minimum age for compulsory and voluntary military service (2012)

Military expenditures

2% of GDP (2015 est.)
1.8% of GDP (2014)
1.58% of GDP (2013)
1.54% of GDP (2012)
1.5% of GDP (2011)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

Cambodia is concerned about Laos' extensive upstream dam construction; Cambodia and Thailand dispute sections of boundary; in 2011 Thailand and Cambodia resorted to arms in the dispute over the location of the boundary on the precipice surmounted by Preah Vihear Temple ruins, awarded to Cambodia by ICJ decision in 1962 and part of a UN World Heritage site; Cambodia accuses Vietnam of a wide variety of illicit cross-border activities; progress on a joint development area with Vietnam is hampered by an unresolved dispute over sovereignty of offshore islands

Trafficking in persons

current situation: Cambodia is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; Cambodian men, women, and children migrate to countries within the region and, increasingly, the Middle East for legitimate work but are subjected to sex trafficking, domestic servitude, or forced labor in fishing, agriculture, construction, and factories; Cambodian men recruited to work on Thai-owned fishing vessels are subsequently subjected to forced labor in international waters and are kept at sea for years; poor Cambodian children are vulnerable and, often with the families’ complicity, are subject to forced labor, including domestic servitude and forced begging, in Thailand and Vietnam; Cambodian and ethnic Vietnamese women and girls are trafficked from rural areas to urban centers and tourist spots for sexual exploitation; Cambodian men are the main exploiters of child prostitutes, but men from other Asian countries, and the West travel to Cambodia for child sex tourism
tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List – Cambodia does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; the government has a written plan that, if implemented, would constitute making significant efforts to meet the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; authorities made modest progress in prosecutions and convictions of traffickers in 2014 but did not provide comprehensive data; endemic corruption continued to impede law enforcement efforts, and no complicit officials were prosecuted or convicted; the government sustained efforts to identify victims and refer them to NGOs for care, but victim protection remained inadequate, particularly for assisting male victims and victims identified abroad; a new national action plan was adopted, but guidelines for victim identification and guidance on undercover investigation techniques are still pending after several years (2015)

Illicit drugs

narcotics-related corruption reportedly involving some in the government, military, and police; limited methamphetamine production; vulnerable to money laundering due to its cash-based economy and porous borders