Bosnia and Herzegovina declared sovereignty in October 1991 and independence from the former Yugoslavia on 3 March 1992 after a referendum boycotted by ethnic Serbs. The Bosnian Serbs - supported by neighboring Serbia and Montenegro - responded with armed resistance aimed at partitioning the republic along ethnic lines and joining Serb-held areas to form a "Greater Serbia." In March 1994, Bosniaks and Croats reduced the number of warring factions from three to two by signing an agreement creating a joint Bosniak-Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. On 21 November 1995, in Dayton, Ohio, the warring parties initialed a peace agreement that ended three years of interethnic civil strife (the final agreement was signed in Paris on 14 December 1995).
The Dayton Peace Accords retained Bosnia and Herzegovina's international boundaries and created a multiethnic and democratic government charged with conducting foreign, diplomatic, and fiscal policy. Also recognized was a second tier of government composed of two entities roughly equal in size: the predominantly Bosniak-Bosnian Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the predominantly Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska (RS). The Federation and RS governments are responsible for overseeing most government functions. Additionally, the Dayton Accords established the Office of the High Representative to oversee the implementation of the civilian aspects of the agreement. The Peace Implementation Council at its conference in Bonn in 1997 also gave the High Representative the authority to impose legislation and remove officials, the so-called "Bonn Powers." An original NATO-led international peacekeeping force (IFOR) of 60,000 troops assembled in 1995 was succeeded over time by a smaller, NATO-led Stabilization Force (SFOR). In 2004, European Union peacekeeping troops (EUFOR) replaced SFOR. Currently, EUFOR deploys around 600 troops in theater in a security assistance and training capacity.



Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea and Croatia

Geographic coordinates

44 00 N, 18 00 E

Map references



total: 51,197 sq km
land: 51,187 sq km
water: 10 sq km

Area - comparative

slightly smaller than West Virginia

Land boundaries

total: 1,543 km
border countries (3): Croatia 956 km, Montenegro 242 km, Serbia 345 km


20 km

Maritime claims



hot summers and cold winters; areas of high elevation have short, cool summers and long, severe winters; mild, rainy winters along coast


mountains and valleys


mean elevation: 500 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
highest point: Maglic 2,386 m

Natural resources

coal, iron ore, bauxite, copper, lead, zinc, chromite, cobalt, manganese, nickel, clay, gypsum, salt, sand, timber, hydropower

Land use

agricultural land: 42.2%
arable land 19.7%; permanent crops 2%; permanent pasture 20.5%
forest: 42.8%
other: 15% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land

30 sq km (2012)

Natural hazards

destructive earthquakes

Environment - current issues

air pollution from metallurgical plants; sites for disposing of urban waste are limited; water shortages and destruction of infrastructure because of the 1992-95 civil strife; deforestation

Environment - international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note

within Bosnia and Herzegovina's recognized borders, the country is divided into a joint Bosniak/Croat Federation (about 51% of the territory) and the Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska or RS (about 49% of the territory); the region called Herzegovina is contiguous to Croatia and Montenegro, and traditionally has been settled by an ethnic Croat majority in the west and an ethnic Serb majority in the east

People and Society

Ethnic groups

Bosniak 50.1%, Serb 30.8%, Croat 15.4%, other 2.7%, not declared/no answer 1%
note: the methodology remains disputed and Republika Srspka authorities refuse to recognize the results; Bosniak has replaced Muslim as an ethnic term in part to avoid confusion with the religious term Muslim - an adherent of Islam (2013 est.)

Birth rate

8.8 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)


3,861,912 (July 2016 est.)


noun: Bosnian(s), Herzegovinian(s)
adjective: Bosnian, Herzegovinian


Bosnian (official) 52.9%, Serbian (official) 30.8%, Croatian (official) 14.6%, other 1.6%, no answer 0.2% (2013 est.)


Muslim 50.7%, Orthodox 30.7%, Roman Catholic 15.2%, atheist 0.8%, agnostic 0.3%, other 1.2%, undeclared/no answer 1.1% (2013 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 13.36% (male 266,389/female 249,425)
15-24 years: 11.97% (male 238,682/female 223,599)
25-54 years: 46.2% (male 896,760/female 887,407)
55-64 years: 14.43% (male 267,628/female 289,464)
65 years and over: 14.05% (male 212,574/female 329,984) (2016 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 40.7%
youth dependency ratio: 19%
elderly dependency ratio: 21.7%
potential support ratio: 4.6% (2015 est.)

Median age

total: 41.7 years
male: 40.2 years
female: 43.1 years (2016 est.)

Population growth rate

-0.14% (2016 est.)

Death rate

9.9 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)

Net migration rate

-0.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)

Population distribution

the northern and central areas of the country are the most densely populated


urban population: 39.8% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 0.14% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population

SARAJEVO (capital) 318,000 (2015)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.64 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2016 est.)

Child labor - children ages 5-14

total number: 24,722
percentage: 5% (2006 est.)

Maternal mortality rate

11 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)

Infant mortality rate

total: 5.6 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 5.7 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 5.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 76.7 years
male: 73.7 years
female: 80 years (2016 est.)

Total fertility rate

1.28 children born/woman (2016 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

45.8% (2011/12)

Health expenditures

9.6% of GDP (2014)

Physicians density

1.93 physicians/1,000 population (2013)

Hospital bed density

3.5 beds/1,000 population (2010)

Drinking water source

urban: 99.7% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 99.9% of population
urban: 0.3% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0.1% of population (2015 est.)

Sanitation facility access

urban: 98.9% of population
rural: 92% of population
total: 94.8% of population
urban: 1.1% of population
rural: 8% of population
total: 5.2% of population (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate


HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS


HIV/AIDS - deaths


Obesity - adult prevalence rate

19.2% (2014)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

1.5% (2012)

Education expenditures



definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98.5%
male: 99.5%
female: 97.5% (2015 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 14 years
male: 14 years
female: 15 years (2014)

Mother's mean age at first birth

26.7 (2013 est.)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24

total: 62.8%
male: 62.8%
female: 62.8% (2012 est.)


Country name

conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Bosnia and Herzegovina
local long form: none
local short form: Bosna i Hercegovina
former: People's Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina
abbreviation: BiH
etymology: the larger northern territory is named for the Bosna River; the smaller southern section takes its name from the German word "herzog," meaning "duke," and the ending "-ovina," meaning "land," forming the combination denoting "dukedom"

Government type

parliamentary republic


name: Sarajevo
geographic coordinates: 43 52 N, 18 25 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative divisions

2 first-order administrative divisions and 1 internationally supervised district* - the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Federacija Bosne i Hercegovine) (predominantly Bosniak-Croat), the Republika Srpska (predominately Serb), Brcko District (Brcko Distrikt)*; note - Brcko District is in northeastern Bosnia and is a self-governing administrative unit under the sovereignty of Bosnia and Herzegovina and formally held in condominium between the two entities


1 March 1992 (from Yugoslavia); note - referendum for independence completed on 1 March 1992; independence declared on 3 March 1992

National holiday

National Day (Statehood Day), 25 November (1943); Independence Day, 1 March (1992); note - observed only in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Dayton Agreement Day, 21 November (2007); note - observed only in the Republika Srpska
note: there is no national-level holiday


history: 14 December 1995 (constitution included as part of the Dayton Peace Accords); note - each of the political entities has its own constitution
amendments: decided by the Parliamentary Assembly, including a two-thirds majority vote of members present in the House of Representatives; the constitutional article on human rights and fundamental freedoms cannot be amended; amended several times, last in 2009

Legal system

civil law system; Constitutional Court review of legislative acts

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction


citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Bosnia and Herzegovina
dual citizenship recognized: yes, provided there is a bilateral agreement with the other state
residency requirement for naturalization: 8 years


18 years of age, 16 if employed; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: Chairman of the Presidency Mladen IVANIC (chairman since 17 November 2016, presidency member since 17 November 2014 - Serb); Dragan COVIC (presidency member since 17 November 2014 - Croat); Bakir IZETBEGOVIC (presidency member since 10 November 2010 - Bosniak)
head of government: Chairman of the Council of Ministers Denis ZVIZDIC (since 11 February 2015)
cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the council chairman, approved by the state-level House of Representatives
elections/appointments: 3-member presidency (1 Bosniak and 1 Croat elected from the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and 1 Serb elected from the Republika Srpska) directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a 4-year term (eligible for a second term, but then ineligible for 4 years); the presidency chairpersonship rotates every 8 months and resumes where it left off following each general election; election last held on 12 October 2014 (next to be held in October 2018); the chairman of the Council of Ministers appointed by the presidency and confirmed by the state-level House of Representatives
election results: percent of vote - Mladen IVANIC 48.7% - Serb seat; Dragan COVIC 52.2% - Croat seat; Bakir IZETBEGOVIC 32.9% - Bosniak seat
note: President of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina Marinko CAVARA (since 11 February 2015); Vice Presidents Melika MAHMUTBEGOVIC (since 11 February 2015), Milan DUNOVIC (since 11 February 2015); President of the Republika Srpska Milorad DODIK (since 15 November 2010); Vice Presidents Ramiz SALKIC (since 24 November 2014), Josip JERKOVIC (since 24 November 2014)

Legislative branch

description: bicameral Parliamentary Assembly or Skupstina consists of the House of Peoples or Dom Naroda (15 seats - 5 Bosniak, 5 Croat, 5 Serb; members designated by the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina's House of Peoples and the Republika Srpska's National Assembly to serve 4-year terms) and the state-level House of Representatives or Predstavnicki Dom (42 seats to include 28 seats allocated to the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and 14 to the Republika Srpska; members directly elected by proportional representation vote to serve 4-year terms); note - the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina has a bicameral legislature that consists of the House of Peoples (58 seats - 17 Bosniak, 17 Croat, 17 Serb, 7 other) and the House of Representatives (98 seats; members directly elected by proportional representation vote to serve 4-year terms); Republika Srpska's unicameral legislature is the National Assembly (83 directly elected delegates serve 4-year terms)
elections: House of Peoples - last constituted in 11 February 2015 (next likely to be constituted in 2019); state-level House of Representatives - election last held on 12 October 2014 (next to be held in October 2018)
election results: House of Peoples - percent of vote by party/coalition - NA; seats by party/coalition - NA; state-level House of Representatives - percent of vote by party/coalition - Federation votes: SDA 27.9%, DF 15.3%, SBB BiH 14.4%, Croat People's Assembly coalition or HNS (HDZ BiH-HSS-NHI-HKDU-HSP BiH-HSP HB) 12.2%, SDP 9.5%, HDZ-1990 4.1%, BPS-Sefer Halilovic 3.7%, A-SDA 2.3%, other 10.6%; Republika Srpska votes: SNSD 38.5%, SDS 32.6%, PDP-NDP 7.8%, DNS 5.7%, SDA 4.9%, other 10.5%; seats by party/coalition - SDA 10, SNSD 6, SDS 5, DF 5, SBB BiH 4, Croat People's Assembly coalition or HNS (HDZ BiH-HSS-NHI-HKDU-HSP BiH-HSP HB) 4, SDP 3, PDP-NDP 1, HDZ-1990 1, BPS-Sefer Halilovic 1, DNS 1, A-SDA 1

Judicial branch

highest court(s): BiH Constitutional Court (consists of 9 members); Court of BiH (consists of 44 national judges and 7 international judges organized into 3 divisions - Administrative, Appellate, and Criminal, which includes a War Crimes Chamber)
judge selection and term of office: BiH Constitutional Court judges - 4 selected by the Bosniak/Croat Federation's House of Representatives, 2 selected by the Republika Srpska's National Assembly, and 3 non-Bosnian judges selected by the president of the European Court of Human Rights; Court of BiH president and national judges appointed by the High Judicial and Prosecutorial Council; Court of BiH president appointed for renewable 6-year term; other national judges appointed to serve until age 70; international judges recommended by the president of the Court of BiH and appointed by the High Representative for Bosnia and Herzegovina; international judges appointed to serve until age 70
subordinate courts: the Federation has 10 cantonal courts plus a number of municipal courts; the Republika Srpska has a supreme court, 5 district courts, and a number of municipal courts

Political parties and leaders

Alliance for a Better Future of BiH or SBB BiH [Fahrudin RADONCIC]
Alliance of Independent Social Democrats or SNSD [Milorad DODIK]
Alternative Party for Democratic Activity or A-SDA [Nermin OGRESEVIC]
Bosnian-Herzegovinian Patriotic Party-Sefer Halilovic or BPS-Sefer Halilovic [Sefer HALILOVIC]
Croat Peasants' Party or HSS [Mario KARAMATIC]
Croatian Christian Democratic Union of Bosnia and Herzegovina or HKDU [Ivan MUSA]
Croatian Democratic Union of Bosnia and Herzegovina or HDZ-BiH [Dragan COVIC]
Croatian Democratic Union 1990 or HDZ-1990 [acting president Ilija CVITANOVIC]
Croatian Party of Rights or HSP BiH [Stanko PRIMORAC]
Croatian Party of Rights of Herceg-Bosne or HSP HB [Vesna PINJUH]
Croatian People's Party-Liberal Democrats or HNS [Ivan VRDOLJAK]
Democratic Front of DF [Zeljko KOMSIC]
Democratic Peoples' Alliance or DNS [Marko PAVIC]
Party for Democratic Action or SDA [Bakir IZETBEGOVIC]
Party of Democratic Progress or PDP [Branislav BORENOVIC]
People's Democratic Movement or NDP [Dragan CAVIC]
Serb Democratic Party or SDS [Vukota GOVEDARICA]
Social Democratic Party or SDP [Nermin NIKSIC]

Political pressure groups and leaders

other: war veterans; displaced persons associations; family associations of missing persons; private media

International organization participation


Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Haris HRLE (since 23 October 2015)
chancery: 2109 E Street NW, Washington, DC 20037
telephone: [1] (202) 337-1500
FAX: [1] (202) 337-1502
consulate(s) general: Chicago, New York

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Maureen CORMACK (since 16 January 2015)
embassy: 1 Roberta C. Frasurea Street, 71000 Sarajevo
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [387] (33) 704-000
FAX: [387] (33) 659-722
branch office(s): Banja Luka, Mostar

Flag description

a wide medium blue vertical band on the fly side with a yellow isosceles triangle abutting the band and the top of the flag; the remainder of the flag is medium blue with seven full five-pointed white stars and two half stars top and bottom along the hypotenuse of the triangle; the triangle approximates the shape of the country and its three points stand for the constituent peoples - Bosniaks, Croats, and Serbs; the stars represent Europe and are meant to be continuous (thus the half stars at top and bottom); the colors (white, blue, and yellow) are often associated with neutrality and peace, and traditionally are linked with Bosnia
note: one of several flags where a prominent component of the design reflects the shape of the country; other such flags are those of Brazil, Eritrea, and Vanuatu

National symbol(s)

golden lily; national colors: blue, yellow, white

National anthem

name: "Drzavna himna Bosne i Hercegovine" (The National Anthem of Bosnia and Herzegovina)
lyrics/music: none officially; Dusan SESTIC and Benjamin ISOVIC/Dusan SESTIC
note: music adopted 1999; lyrics accepted 2009 but not yet approved


Population below poverty line

17.2% (2011 est.)

Economy - overview

Bosnia has a transitional economy with limited market reforms. The economy relies heavily on the export of metals, energy, textiles, and furniture as well as on remittances and foreign aid. A highly decentralized government hampers economic policy coordin

Interethnic warfare in Bosnia and Herzegovina caused production to plummet by 80% from 1992 to 1995 and unemployment to soar, but the economy made progress until 2008, when the global economic crisis caused a downturn. Bosnia and Herzegovina became a full

Bosnia's private sector is growing slowly, but foreign investment has dropped sharply since 2007. High unemployment remains the most serious macroeconomic problem. Successful implementation of a value-added tax in 2006 provided a steady source of revenue

Bosnia and Herzegovina's top economic priorities are: acceleration of integration into the EU; strengthening the fiscal system; public administration reform; World Trade Organization membership; and securing economic growth by fostering a dynamic, competi

GDP (purchasing power parity)

$42.53 billion (2016 est.)
$41.29 billion (2015 est.)
$40.03 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)

$16.53 billion (2015 est.)

GDP - real growth rate

3% (2016 est.)
3.2% (2015 est.)
1.1% (2014 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP)

$11,000 (2016 est.)
$10,700 (2015 est.)
$10,300 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars

Gross national saving

12% of GDP (2016 est.)
10.5% of GDP (2015 est.)
10.3% of GDP (2014 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 80.9%
government consumption: 21.5%
investment in fixed capital: 18.6%
investment in inventories: 0%
exports of goods and services: 32.8%
imports of goods and services: -55.1% (2016 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 7.8%
industry: 26.8%
services: 65.4% (2016 est.)

Agriculture - products

wheat, corn, fruits, vegetables; livestock


steel, coal, iron ore, lead, zinc, manganese, bauxite, aluminum, motor vehicle assembly, textiles, tobacco products, wooden furniture, ammunition, domestic appliances, oil refining

Industrial production growth rate

4% (2016 est.)

Labor force

1.48 million (2016 est.)

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 19%
industry: 30%
services: 51% (2013)

Unemployment rate

43.2% (2015 est.)
43.2% (2015 est.)
note: official rate; actual rate is lower as many technically unemployed persons work in the gray economy

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 2.7%
highest 10%: 27.3% (2007)

Distribution of family income - Gini index

36.2 (2007)


revenues: $7.681 billion
expenditures: $7.975 billion (2016 est.)

Taxes and other revenues

46.5% of GDP (2016 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

-1.8% of GDP (2016 est.)

Public debt

46.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
46.1% of GDP (2015 est.)
note: data cover general government debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as int

Fiscal year

calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

-0.8% (2016 est.)
-1% (2015 est.)

Commercial bank prime lending rate

5% (31 December 2016 est.)
5.79% (31 December 2015 est.)

Stock of narrow money

$5.008 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$4.554 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

Stock of broad money

$9.223 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$10.72 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of domestic credit

$9.367 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$9.389 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares


Current account balance

-$847 million (2016 est.)
-$901 million (2015 est.)


$3.93 billion (2016 est.)
$3.95 billion (2015 est.)

Exports - commodities

metals, clothing, wood products

Exports - partners

Slovenia 16.5%, Italy 15.9%, Germany 12.1%, Croatia 11.5%, Austria 11.1%, Turkey 5.2% (2015)


$7.765 billion (2016 est.)
$8.173 billion (2015 est.)

Imports - commodities

machinery and equipment, chemicals, fuels, foodstuffs

Imports - partners

Croatia 19.3%, Germany 13.9%, Slovenia 13.8%, Italy 10.9%, Austria 5.7%, Hungary 5.2%, Turkey 4.5% (2015)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$4.8 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$4.791 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

Debt - external

$9.768 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$9.597 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home

$7.92 billion (2014 est.)
$7.721 billion (2013 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad

$0 (2014)

Exchange rates

konvertibilna markas (BAM) per US dollar -
1.806 (2016 est.)
1.7626 (2015 est.)
1.7626 (2014 est.)
1.4718 (2013 est.)
1.52 (2012 est.)


Electricity - production

15 billion kWh (2014 est.)

Electricity - access

electrification - total population: 100% (2016)

Electricity - consumption

11 billion kWh (2014 est.)

Electricity - exports

6 billion kWh (2014 est.)

Electricity - imports

3.2 billion kWh (2014 est.)

Electricity - installed generating capacity

4.3 million kW (2014 est.)

Electricity - from fossil fuels

54.8% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)

Electricity - from nuclear fuels

0% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants

43.6% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)

Electricity - from other renewable sources

1.5% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)

Crude oil - production

0 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Crude oil - exports

0 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Crude oil - imports

20,690 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Crude oil - proved reserves

0 bbl (1 January 2016 es)

Refined petroleum products - production

20,280 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - consumption

30,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)

Refined petroleum products - exports

5,342 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - imports

15,230 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Natural gas - production

0 cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - consumption

169 million cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - exports

0 cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - imports

169 million cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves

0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy

17 million Mt (2013 est.)


Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 771,684
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 20 (July 2015 est.)

Telephones - mobile cellular

total: 3.444 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 89 (July 2015 est.)

Telephone system

general assessment: post-war reconstruction of the telecommunications network, aided by an internationally sponsored program, resulted in sharp increases in fixed-line telephone availability
domestic: fixed-line teledensity roughly 20 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular subscribership has been increasing rapidly and stands at roughly 90 telephones per 100 persons
international: country code - 387; no satellite earth stations (2015)

Broadcast media

3 public TV broadcasters: Radio and TV of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Federation TV (operating 2 networks), and Republika Srpska Radio-TV; a local commercial network of 5 TV stations; 3 private, near-national TV stations and dozens of small independent TV bro (2010)

Internet country code


Internet users

total: 2.516 million
percent of population: 65.1% (July 2015 est.)


National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 1
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 1
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 7,070
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 87 mt-km (2015)

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

T9 (2016)


24 (2013)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 7
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
under 914 m: 2 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 17
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 11 (2013)


6 (2013)


gas 147 km; oil 9 km (2013)


total: 965 km
standard gauge: 965 km 1.435-m gauge (565 km electrified) (2014)


total: 22,926 km
paved: 19,426 km (4,652 km of interurban roads)
unpaved: 3,500 km (2010)


(Sava River on northern border; open to shipping but use limited) (2011)

Ports and terminals

river port(s): Bosanska Gradiska, Bosanski Brod, Bosanski Samac, Brcko, Orasje (Sava River)


Military branches

Armed Forces of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Oruzanih Snaga Bosne i Hercegovine, OSBiH): Army of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Air Force and Air Defense (Brigada Zracnih Snaga i Protuzracne Odbrane, br ZSiPZO), Tactical Support Brigade (Brigada Takticke Podrske, br TP) (2015)

Military service age and obligation

18 years of age for voluntary military service; mandatory retirement at age 35 or after 15 years of service for E-1 through E-4, mandatory retirement at age 50 and 30 years of service for E-5 through E-9, mandatory retirement at age 55 and 30 years of service for all officers (2014)

Military expenditures

0.98% of GDP (2014)
1.04% of GDP (2013)
1.35% of GDP (2012)
1.15% of GDP (2011)
1.35% of GDP (2010)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

Serbia delimited about half of the boundary with Bosnia and Herzegovina, but sections along the Drina River remain in dispute

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 6,679 (Croatia) (2015)
IDPs: 98,324 (Bosnian Croats, Serbs, and Bosniaks displaced by inter-ethnic violence, human rights violations, and armed conflict during the 1992-1995 war) (2015)
stateless persons: 58 (2015)

Illicit drugs

increasingly a transit point for heroin being trafficked to Western Europe; minor transit point for marijuana; remains highly vulnerable to money-laundering activity given a primarily cash-based and unregulated economy, weak law enforcement, and instances of corruption