Once the center of power for the large Austro-Hungarian Empire, Austria was reduced to a small republic after its defeat in World War I. Following annexation by Nazi Germany in 1938 and subsequent occupation by the victorious Allies in 1945, Austria's status remained unclear for a decade. A State Treaty signed in 1955 ended the occupation, recognized Austria's independence, and forbade unification with Germany. A constitutional law that same year declared the country's "perpetual neutrality" as a condition for Soviet military withdrawal. The Soviet Union's collapse in 1991 and Austria's entry into the EU in 1995 have altered the meaning of this neutrality. A prosperous, democratic country, Austria entered the EU Economic and Monetary Union in 1999.



Central Europe, north of Italy and Slovenia

Geographic coordinates

47 20 N, 13 20 E

Map references



total: 83,871 sq km
land: 82,445 sq km
water: 1,426 sq km

Area - comparative

about the size of South Carolina; slightly more than two-thirds the size of Pennsylvania

Land boundaries

total: 2,524 km
border countries (8): Czech Republic 402 km, Germany 801 km, Hungary 321 km, Italy 404 km, Liechtenstein 34 km, Slovakia 105 km, Slovenia 299 km, Switzerland 158 km


0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims

none (landlocked)


temperate; continental, cloudy; cold winters with frequent rain and some snow in lowlands and snow in mountains; moderate summers with occasional showers


mostly mountains (Alps) in the west and south; mostly flat or gently sloping along the eastern and northern margins


mean elevation: 910 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Neusiedler See 115 m
highest point: Grossglockner 3,798 m

Natural resources

oil, coal, lignite, timber, iron ore, copper, zinc, antimony, magnesite, tungsten, graphite, salt, hydropower

Land use

agricultural land: 38.4%
arable land 16.5%; permanent crops 0.8%; permanent pasture 21.1%
forest: 47.2%
other: 14.4% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land

1,170 sq km (2012)

Natural hazards

landslides; avalanches; earthquakes

Environment - current issues

some forest degradation caused by air and soil pollution; soil pollution results from the use of agricultural chemicals; air pollution results from emissions by coal- and oil-fired power stations and industrial plants and from trucks transiting Austria between northern and southern Europe

Environment - international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note

landlocked; strategic location at the crossroads of central Europe with many easily traversable Alpine passes and valleys; major river is the Danube; population is concentrated on eastern lowlands because of steep slopes, poor soils, and low temperatures elsewhere

People and Society

Population growth rate

0.51% (2016 est.)


8,711,770 (July 2016 est.)


noun: Austrian(s)
adjective: Austrian

Health expenditures

11.2% of GDP (2014)

Ethnic groups

Austrians 91.1%, former Yugoslavs 4% (includes Croatians, Slovenes, Serbs, and Bosniaks), Turks 1.6%, Germans 0.9%, other or unspecified 2.4% (2001 census)


German (official nationwide) 88.6%, Turkish 2.3%, Serbian 2.2%, Croatian (official in Burgenland) 1.6%, other (includes Slovene, official in South Carinthia, and Hungarian, official in Burgenland) 5.3% (2001 est.)


Catholic 73.8% (includes Roman Catholic 73.6%, other Catholic 0.2%), Protestant 4.9%, Muslim 4.2%, Orthodox 2.2%, other 0.8% (includes other Christian), none 12%, unspecified 2% (2001 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 14.02% (male 625,391/female 596,310)
15-24 years: 11.33% (male 503,333/female 483,748)
25-54 years: 42.71% (male 1,859,985/female 1,860,641)
55-64 years: 12.85% (male 554,191/female 565,189)
65 years and over: 19.09% (male 719,012/female 943,970) (2016 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 49.2%
youth dependency ratio: 21.2%
elderly dependency ratio: 28%
potential support ratio: 3.6% (2015 est.)

Median age

total: 43.8 years
male: 42.7 years
female: 44.9 years (2016 est.)

Birth rate

9.5 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)

Death rate

9.5 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)

Net migration rate

5.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)

Population distribution

the northern and eastern portions of the country are more densely populated; nearly two-thirds of the populace lives in urban areas


urban population: 66% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 0.4% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population

VIENNA (capital) 1.753 million (2015)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2016 est.)

Maternal mortality rate

4 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)

Infant mortality rate

total: 3.4 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 3.8 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 3.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 81.5 years
male: 78.9 years
female: 84.3 years (2016 est.)

Total fertility rate

1.47 children born/woman (2016 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

note: percent of women aged 18-46 (2008/09)

Physicians density

4.83 physicians/1,000 population (2011)

Hospital bed density

7.6 beds/1,000 population (2011)

Drinking water source

urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)

Sanitation facility access

urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate


HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS


HIV/AIDS - deaths


Obesity - adult prevalence rate

20.1% (2014)

Education expenditures

5.6% of GDP (2013)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 16 years
male: 16 years
female: 16 years (2014)

Mother's mean age at first birth

28.5 (2011 est.)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24

total: 10.3%
male: 10.6%
female: 9.9% (2014 est.)


Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Austria
conventional short form: Austria
local long form: Republik Oesterreich
local short form: Oesterreich
etymology: the name Oesterreich means "eastern realm" or "eastern march" and dates to the 10th century; the designation refers to the fact that Austria was the easternmost extension of Bavaria, and in fact of all the Germans; the word Austria is a Latinization of the German name

Government type

federal parliamentary republic


name: Vienna
geographic coordinates: 48 12 N, 16 22 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative divisions

9 states (Bundeslaender, singular - Bundesland); Burgenland, Kaernten (Carinthia), Niederoesterreich (Lower Austria), Oberoesterreich (Upper Austria), Salzburg, Steiermark (Styria), Tirol (Tyrol), Vorarlberg, Wien (Vienna)


12 November 1918 (republic proclaimed); notable earlier dates: 976 (Margravate of Austria established); 17 September 1156 (Duchy of Austria founded); 11 August 1804 (Austrian Empire proclaimed)

National holiday

National Day, 26 October (1955); note - commemorates the passage of the law on permanent neutrality


history: several previous; latest adopted 1 October 1920, revised 1929, replaced May 1934 (authoritarian corporate state), replaced by German Weimar constitution in 1938 following German annexation, reinstated 1 May 1945
amendments: proposed through laws designated “constitutional laws” or through the constitutional process if the amendment is part of another law; approval required by at least two-thirds majority vote of the National Assembly if one-half of the members are present; a referendum is required only if requested by one-third of the National Council or Federal Council membership; passage by referendum requires absolute majority vote; amended many times, last in 2014 (2016)

Legal system

civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts by the Constitutional Court

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; accepts ICCt jurisdiction


citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Austria
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years


16 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: Presidents Doris BURES (SPOe), Karlheinz KOPF (OeVP), Norbert HOFER (FPOe) (since 8 July 2016); note - until Alexander VAN DER BELLEN is sworn into office on 26 January 2017
head of government: Chancellor Christian KERN (SPOe) (since 17 May 2016); Vice Chancellor Reinhold MITTERLEHNER (OeVP) (since 1 September 2014)
cabinet: Council of Ministers chosen by the president on the advice of the chancellor
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 6-year term (eligible for a second term); elections last held on 24 April 2016 (first round), 22 May 2016 (second round, which was annulled), and 4 December 2016 (second round re-vote); next presidential elections to be held in April 2022; chancellor appointed by the president but determined by the majority coalition parties in the Federal Assembly; vice chancellor appointed by the president on the advice of the chancellor
election results: percent of vote: first-round results - Norbet HOFER (FPOe) 35.1%, Alexander VAN DER BELLEN (independent, allied with the Greens) 21.3%, Irmgard GRISS (independent) 18.9%, Rudolf HUNDSTORFER (SPOe) 11.3%, Andreas KHOL (OeVP) 11.1%, Richard LUGNER (independent) 2.3%; second round results - Alexander VAN DER BELLEN 53.8%, Norbet HOFER 46.2%; note - Alexander VAN DER BELLEN will probably be sworn into office 26 January 2017

Legislative branch

description: bicameral Federal Assembly or Bundesversammlung consists of the Federal Council or Bundesrat (62 seats; members appointed by state parliaments with each state receiving 3 to 12 seats in proportion to its population; members serve 5- or 6-year terms) and the National Council or Nationalrat (183 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)
elections: National Council - last held on 29 September 2013 (next to be held by September 2018)
election results: National Council - percent of vote by party - SPOe 26.8%, OeVP 24.0%, FPOe 20.5%, Greens 12.4%, Team Stronach 5.7%, NEOS 5.0%, other 5.6%; seats by party - SPOe 52, OeVP 47, FPOe 40, Greens 24, Team Stronach 11, NEOS 9; note - currently: SPOe 52, OeVP 50, FPOe 38, Greens 24, NEOS 9, Team Stronach 6, without faction 4

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court of Justice or Oberster Gerichtshof (consists of 85 judges organized into 17 senates or panels of 5 judges each); Constitutional Court or Verfassungsgerichtshof (consists of 20 judges including 6 substitutes; Administrative Court or Verwaltungsgerichtshof - 2 judges plus other members depending on the importance of the case)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges nominated by executive branch departments and appointed by the president; judges serve for life; Constitutional Court judges nominated by several executive branch departments and approved by the president; judges serve for life; Administrative Court judges recommended by executive branch departments and appointed by the president; terms of judges and members determined by the president
subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal (4); Regional Courts (20); district courts (120); county courts

Political parties and leaders

Austrian People's Party or OeVP [Reinhold MITTERLEHNER]
Communist Party of Austria or KPOe [Mirko MESSNER]
Freedom Party of Austria or FPOe [Heinz-Christian STRACHE]
The Greens [Eva GLAWISCHNIG]
NEOS - The New Austria [Matthias STROLZ]
Social Democratic Party of Austria or SPOe [Christian KERN]
"Team Stronach" [Frank STRONACH]

Political pressure groups and leaders

Austrian Trade Union Federation or OeGB (nominally independent but primarily Social Democratic)
Federal Agriculture Chamber (OeVP-dominated)
Federal Economic Chamber (OeVP-dominated)
Labor Chamber or AK (Social Democratic-leaning think tank)
OeVP-oriented Association of Austrian Industrialists or IV
Roman Catholic Church, including its chief lay organization, Catholic Action
other: three composite leagues of the Austrian People's Party or OeVP representing business, labor, farmers, and other nongovernment organizations in the areas of environment and human rights

National symbol(s)

golden eagle, edelweiss, Alpine gentian; national colors: red, white

International organization participation

ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CD, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, G-9, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, PFP, Schengen Convention, SELEC (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Wolfgang WALDNER (since 28 January 2016)
chancery: 3524 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008-3035
telephone: [1] (202) 895-6700
FAX: [1] (202) 895-6750
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York
consulate(s): Chicago

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Alexa Lange WESNER (since 22 October 2013)
embassy: Boltzmanngasse 16, A-1090, Vienna
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [43] (1) 31339-0
FAX: [43] (1) 3100682

Flag description

three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and red; the flag design is certainly one of the oldest - if not the oldest - national banners in the world; according to tradition, in 1191, following a fierce battle in the Third Crusade, Duke Leopold V of Austria's white tunic became completely blood-spattered; upon removal of his wide belt or sash, a white band was revealed; the red-white-red color combination was subsequently adopted as his banner

National anthem

name: "Bundeshymne" (Federal Hymn)
lyrics/music: Paula von PRERADOVIC/Wolfgang Amadeus MOZART or Johann HOLZER (disputed)
note: adopted 1947; the anthem is also known as "Land der Berge, Land am Strome" (Land of the Mountains, Land by the River); Austria adopted a new national anthem after World War II to replace the former imperial anthem composed by Franz Josef HAYDN, which had been appropriated by Germany in 1922 and was thereafter associated with the Nazi regime; a gendered version of the lyrics was adopted by the Austrian Federal Assembly in fall 2011 and became effective 1 January 2012


Industrial production growth rate

1.4% (2016 est.)

Economy - overview

Austria, with its well-developed market economy, skilled labor force, and high standard of living, is closely tied to other EU economies, especially Germany's. Its economy features a large service sector, a relatively sound industrial sector, and a small,

Economic growth has been relatively weak in recent years, approaching 0.9% in 2015, but rising to 1.4% in 2016. Austria's 5.8% unemployment rate, while low by European standards, is at its highest rate since the end of World War II, driven by an increased

Although Austria's fiscal position compares favorably with other euro-zone countries, it faces several external risks, such as unexpectedly weak world economic growth threatening the export market, Austrian banks' continued exposure to Central and Eastern

GDP (purchasing power parity)

$415.9 billion (2016 est.)
$410.4 billion (2015 est.)
$406.9 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)

$387.3 billion (2015 est.)

GDP - real growth rate

1.4% (2016 est.)
0.9% (2015 est.)
0.4% (2014 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP)

$47,900 (2016 est.)
$47,600 (2015 est.)
$47,600 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars

Gross national saving

25.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
25% of GDP (2015 est.)
24.7% of GDP (2014 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 52.7%
government consumption: 20%
investment in fixed capital: 22.8%
investment in inventories: 0.4%
exports of goods and services: 53.1%
imports of goods and services: -49% (2016 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 1.3%
industry: 28.1%
services: 70.6% (2016 est.)

Agriculture - products

grains, potatoes, wine, fruit; dairy products, cattle, pigs, poultry; lumber and other forestry products


construction, machinery, vehicles and parts, food, metals, chemicals, lumber, paper and paperboard, communications equipment, tourism

Labor force

3.944 million (2016 est.)

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 0.7%
industry: 25.3%
services: 74% (2015 est.)

Unemployment rate

6.1% (2016 est.)
5.7% (2015 est.)

Population below poverty line

4% (2014 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 2.8%
highest 10%: 23.5% (2012 est.)

Distribution of family income - Gini index

29.2 (2013)
26.3 (2007)


revenues: $187.3 billion
expenditures: $192.6 billion (2016 est.)

Taxes and other revenues

48.4% of GDP (2016 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

-1.4% of GDP (2016 est.)

Public debt

85.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
86.2% of GDP (2015 est.)
note: this is general government gross debt, defined in the Maastricht Treaty as consolidated general government gross debt at nominal value, outstanding at the end of the year; it covers the following categories of government liabilities (as defined in ESA95):

Fiscal year

calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

0.9% (2016 est.)
0.8% (2015 est.)

Commercial bank prime lending rate

1.8% (31 December 2016 est.)
2% (31 December 2015 est.)

Stock of narrow money

$203.1 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$193.9 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
note: see entry for the European Union for money supply for the entire euro area; the European Central Bank (ECB) controls monetary policy for the 18 members of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); individual members of the EMU do not control the quantity of

Stock of broad money

$319.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$317.2 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

Stock of domestic credit

$467 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$462.9 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares

$96.08 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$96.79 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
$117.7 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

Current account balance

$10.19 billion (2016 est.)
$9.583 billion (2015 est.)


$141.9 billion (2016 est.)
$142.9 billion (2015 est.)

Exports - commodities

machinery and equipment, motor vehicles and parts, paper and paperboard, metal goods, chemicals, iron and steel, textiles, foodstuffs

Exports - partners

Germany 29.4%, US 6.4%, Italy 6.1%, Switzerland 5.7%, France 4.4%, Slovakia 4.2% (2015)


$138.6 billion (2016 est.)
$140 billion (2015 est.)

Imports - commodities

machinery and equipment, motor vehicles, chemicals, metal goods, oil and oil products, natural gas; foodstuffs

Imports - partners

Germany 41.5%, Italy 6.3%, Switzerland 6%, Czech Republic 4.2% (2015)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$22.24 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$24.94 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Debt - external

$689.1 billion (31 March 2016 est.)
$679.3 billion (31 March 2015 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home

$304.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$294.9 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad

$363.6 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$349.3 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

Exchange rates

euros (EUR) per US dollar -
0.9214 (2016 est.)
0.885 (2015 est.)
0.885 (2014 est.)
0.7634 (2013 est.)
0.78 (2012 est.)


Electricity - access

electrification - total population: 100% (2016)

Electricity - production

59 billion kWh (2014 est.)

Electricity - consumption

69.75 billion kWh (2015 est.)

Electricity - exports

19.31 billion kWh (2015 est.)

Electricity - imports

29.37 billion kWh (2015 est.)

Electricity - installed generating capacity

24.22 million kW (2014 est.)

Electricity - from fossil fuels

32.8% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)

Electricity - from nuclear fuels

0% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants

56% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)

Electricity - from other renewable sources

11.1% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)

Crude oil - production

16,500 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Crude oil - exports

0 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Crude oil - imports

165,300 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Crude oil - proved reserves

47.5 million bbl (1 January 2016 es)

Refined petroleum products - production

200,900 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Refined petroleum products - consumption

264,600 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Refined petroleum products - exports

50,640 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Refined petroleum products - imports

117,300 bbl/day (2015 est.)

Natural gas - production

1.321 billion cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - consumption

7.845 billion cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - exports

2.529 billion cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - imports

10.12 billion cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves

7.9 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy

76.2 million Mt (2014 est.)


Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 3,609,900
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 42 (July 2015 est.)

Telephones - mobile cellular

total: 13.471 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 155 (July 2015 est.)

Telephone system

general assessment: highly developed and efficient
domestic: fixed-line subscribership has been in decline since the mid-1990s with mobile-cellular subscribership eclipsing it by the late 1990s; the fiber-optic net is very extensive; all telephone applications and Internet services are available; broadband is avail
international: country code - 43; earth stations available in the Intelsat, Eutelsat satellite systems (2016)

Broadcast media

worldwide cable and satellite TV are available; the public incumbent ORF competes with three other major, several regional domestic, and up to 400 international TV stations; TV coverage is in principle 100%, but only 90% use broadcast media; Internet stre (2016)

Internet country code


Internet users

total: 7.273 million
percent of population: 83.9% (July 2015 est.)


National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 11
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 130
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 14,718,641
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 351.379 million mt-km (2015)

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

OE (2016)


52 (2013)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 24
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 13 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 28
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 24 (2013)


1 (2013)


gas 4,736 km; oil 663 km; refined products 157 km (2013)


total: 5,267.7 km
standard gauge: 5,267.7 km 1.435-m gauge (3,556.4 km electrified) (2014)


total: 133,597 km
paved: 133,597 km (includes 2,207 km of expressways) (2016)


358 km (2011)

Merchant marine

registered in other countries: 3 (Cyprus 1, Kazakhstan 1, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1) (2010)

Ports and terminals

river port(s): Enns, Krems, Linz, Vienna (Danube)


Military branches

Land Forces (KdoLdSK), Air Forces (KdoLuSK)

Military service age and obligation

registration requirement at age 17, the legal minimum age for voluntary military service; 18 is the legal minimum age for compulsory military service (6 months), or optionally, alternative civil/community service (9 months); males 18 to 50 years old in the militia or inactive reserve are subject to compulsory service; in a January 2012 referendum, a majority of Austrians voted in favor of retaining the system of compulsory military service (with the option of alternative/non-military service) instead of switching to a professional army system (2015)

Military expenditures

0.55% of GDP (2015 est.)
0.62% of GDP (2014)
0.63% of GDP (2013)
0.68% of GDP (2012)
0.7% of GDP (2011)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international


Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 17,458 (Afghanistan); 15,526 (Russia); 14,894 (Syria) (2015)
stateless persons: 828 (2015)

Illicit drugs

transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and South American cocaine destined for Western Europe; increasing consumption of European-produced synthetic drugs