Colonized by English settlers from Saint Kitts in 1650, Anguilla was administered by Great Britain until the early 19th century, when the island - against the wishes of the inhabitants - was incorporated into a single British dependency along with Saint Kitts and Nevis. Several attempts at separation failed. In 1971, two years after a revolt, Anguilla was finally allowed to secede; this arrangement was formally recognized in 1980, with Anguilla becoming a separate British dependency.



Caribbean, islands between the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean, east of Puerto Rico

Geographic coordinates

18 15 N, 63 10 W

Map references

Central America and the Caribbean


total: 91 sq km
land: 91 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative

about one-half the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries

0 km


61 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 3 nm
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm


tropical; moderated by northeast trade winds


flat and low-lying island of coral and limestone


mean elevation: NA
elevation extremes: lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: Crocus Hill 65 m

Natural resources

salt, fish, lobster

Land use

agricultural land: 0%
arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; permanent pasture 0%
forest: 61.1%
other: 38.9% (mostly rock with some commercial salt ponds) (2011 est.)

Irrigated land

0 sq km (2012)

Natural hazards

frequent hurricanes and other tropical storms (July to October)

Environment - current issues

supplies of potable water sometimes cannot meet increasing demand largely because of poor distribution system

Geography - note

the most northerly of the Leeward Islands in the Lesser Antilles

People and Society


16,752 (July 2016 est.)


noun: Anguillan(s)
adjective: Anguillan

Ethnic groups

African/black 85.3%, hispanic 4.9%, mixed 3.8%, white 3.2%, East Indian/Indian 1%, other 1.6%, unspecified 0.3% (2011 est.)


English (official)


Protestant 73.2% (includes Anglican 22.7%, Methodist 19.4%, Pentecostal 10.5%, Seventh Day Adventist 8.3%, Baptist 7.1%, Church of God 4.9%, Presbytarian 0.2%, Brethren 0.1%), Roman Catholic 6.8%, Jehovah's Witness 1.1%, other Christian 10.9%, other 3.2%, unspecified 0.3%, none 4.5% (2011 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 22.48% (male 1,924/female 1,842)
15-24 years: 14.05% (male 1,176/female 1,178)
25-54 years: 44.32% (male 3,340/female 4,084)
55-64 years: 10.51% (male 834/female 926)
65 years and over: 8.64% (male 719/female 729) (2016 est.)

Median age

total: 34.6 years
male: 32.7 years
female: 36.4 years (2016 est.)

Population growth rate

2% (2016 est.)

Birth rate

12.7 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)

Death rate

4.6 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)

Net migration rate

11.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)

Population distribution

most of the population is concentrated in The Valley in the center of the island; settlmement is fairly uniform in the southwest, but rather sparce in the northeast


urban population: 100% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 1.19% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population

THE VALLEY (capital) 1,000 (2014)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.82 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.9 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.98 male(s)/female
total population: 0.91 male(s)/female (2016 est.)

Infant mortality rate

total: 3.4 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 3.8 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 2.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 81.4 years
male: 78.8 years
female: 84.1 years (2016 est.)

Total fertility rate

1.75 children born/woman (2016 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

note: percent of women aged 15-45 (2003)

Drinking water source

urban: 94.6% of population
rural: NA
total: 94.6% of population
urban: 5.4% of population
rural: NA
total: 5.4% of population (2015 est.)

Sanitation facility access

urban: 97.9% of population
rural: NA
total: 97.9% of population
urban: 2.1% of population
rural: NA
total: 2.1% of population (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate


HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS


HIV/AIDS - deaths


Major infectious diseases

note: active local transmission of Zika virus by Aedes species mosquitoes has been identified in this country (as of August 2016); it poses an important risk (a large number of cases possible) among US citizens if bitten by an infective mosquito; other less common ways to get Zika are through sex, via blood transfusion, or during pregnancy, in which the pregnant woman passes Zika virus to her fetus (2016)

Education expenditures

2.8% of GDP (2008)


Government type

parliamentary democracy (House of Assembly); self-governing overseas territory of the UK

Country name

conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Anguilla
etymology: the name Anguilla means "eel" in various Romance languages (Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, French) and likely derives from the island's lengthy shape

Dependency status

overseas territory of the UK


name: The Valley
geographic coordinates: 18 13 N, 63 03 W
time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions

none (overseas territory of the UK)


none (overseas territory of the UK)

National holiday

Anguilla Day, 30 May (1967)


several previous; latest 1 April 1982; amended 1990 (2016)

Legal system

common law based on the English model


see United Kingdom


18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor Christina SCOTT (since 23 July 2013)
head of government: Chief Minister Hubert HUGHES (since 16 February 2010)
cabinet: Executive Council appointed by the governor from among elected members of the House of Assembly
elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed chief minister by the governor

Legislative branch

description: unicameral House of Assembly (11 seats; seven members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, two appointed by the governor, and two ex officio members - the attorney general and deputy governor; members serve five-year terms)
elections: last held on 22 April 2015 (next to be held in 2015)
election results: percent of vote by party - AUF 54.4%, AUM 38.3%, DOVE 1.4%, independent 5.9%; seats by party - AUF 6, independent 1

Judicial branch

highest court(s): the Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (ECSC) is the itinerant superior court of record for the 9-member Organization of Eastern Caribbean States to include Anguilla; the ECSC - headquartered on St. Lucia - is headed by the chief justice and is comprised of the Court of Appeal with 3 justices and the High Court with 16 judges; sittings of the Court of Appeal and High Court rotate among the 9 member states; High Court judges reside in 7 member states, though none resides on Anguilla
judge selection and term of office: Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court chief justice appointed by Her Majesty, Queen ELIZABETH II; other justices and judges appointed by the Judicial and Legal Services Commission; Court of Appeal justices appointed for life with mandatory retirement at age 65; High Court judges appointed for life with mandatory retirement at age 62
subordinate courts: Magistrate's Court; Juvenile Court

Political parties and leaders

Anguilla United Front or AUF [Victor BANKS] (an alliance of the Anguilla Democratic Party or ADP and the Anguilla National Alliance or ANA)
Anguilla United Movement or AUM [Dr. Ellis WEBSTER]
Democracy, Opportunity, Vision, and Empowerment Party or DOVE [Sutcliffe HODGE]

International organization participation

Caricom (associate), CDB, Interpol (subbureau), OECS, UNESCO (associate), UPU

Diplomatic representation in the US

none (overseas territory of the UK)

Diplomatic representation from the US

none (overseas territory of the UK)

Flag description

blue, with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the Anguillan coat of arms centered in the outer half of the flag; the coat of arms depicts three orange dolphins in an interlocking circular design on a white background with a turquoise-blue field below; the white in the background represents peace; the blue base symbolizes the surrounding sea, as well as faith, youth, and hope; the three dolphins stand for endurance, unity, and strength

National symbol(s)


National anthem

name: "God Bless Anguilla"
lyrics/music: Alex RICHARDSON
note: local anthem adopted 1981; as a territory of the United Kingdom, "God Save the Queen" is official (see United Kingdom)


Economy - overview

Anguilla has few natural resources, and the economy depends heavily on luxury tourism, offshore banking, lobster fishing, and remittances from emigrants. Increased activity in the tourism industry has spurred the growth of the construction sector contribu

GDP (purchasing power parity)

$175.4 million (2009 est.)
$191.7 million (2008 est.)
$108.9 million (2004 est.)

GDP (official exchange rate)

$175.4 million (2009 est.)

GDP - real growth rate

-8.5% (2009 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP)

$12,200 (2008 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 69.8%
government consumption: 14.9%
investment in fixed capital: 20.4%
investment in inventories: 0%
exports of goods and services: 43.1%
imports of goods and services: -48.2% (2016 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 2.3%
industry: 21%
services: 76.6% (2016 est.)

Agriculture - products

small quantities of tobacco, vegetables; cattle raising


tourism, boat building, offshore financial services

Industrial production growth rate

2% (2016 est.)

Labor force

6,049 (2001)

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture/fishing/forestry/mining: 4%
manufacturing: 3%
construction: 18%
transportation and utilities: 10%
commerce: 36%
services: 29% (2000 est.)

Unemployment rate

8% (2002)

Population below poverty line

23% (2002 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%


revenues: $95.07 billion
expenditures: $86.63 billion (2016 est.)

Taxes and other revenues

54,202.4% of GDP (2016 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

4,814.2% of GDP (2016 est.)

Public debt

20.1% of GDP (2015 est.)
20.8% of GDP (2014 est.)

Fiscal year

1 April - 31 March

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

-0.3% (2016 est.)
-1% (2015 est.)

Central bank discount rate

6.5% (31 December 2010)
6.5% (31 December 2009)

Commercial bank prime lending rate

9% (31 December 2016 est.)
9.1% (31 December 2015 est.)

Stock of narrow money

$28.38 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$25.98 million (31 December 2015 est.)

Stock of broad money

$409.6 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$397.8 million (31 December 2015 est.)

Stock of domestic credit

$427.7 million (31 December 2016 est.)
$422.5 million (31 December 2015 est.)

Current account balance

-$50.1 million (2015 est.)
-$46.9 million (2014 est.)


$5.6 million (2016 est.)
$6 million (2015 est.)

Exports - commodities

lobster, fish, livestock, salt, concrete blocks, rum


$128.3 million (2016 est.)
$128.6 million (2015 est.)

Imports - commodities

fuels, foodstuffs, manufactures, chemicals, trucks, textiles

Debt - external

$8.8 million (1998)
$41.04 million (31 December 2013 est.)

Exchange rates

East Caribbean dollars (XCD) per US dollar -
2.7 (2016 est.)
2.7 (2015 est.)
2.7 (2014 est.)
2.7 (2013 est.)
2.7 (2012 est.)



Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 6,000
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 37 (July 2015 est.)

Telephones - mobile cellular

total: 26,000
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 158 (July 2015 est.)

Telephone system

general assessment: modern internal telephone system
domestic: fixed-line teledensity is about 35 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity is roughly 160 per 100 persons
international: country code - 1-264; landing point for the East Caribbean Fiber System submarine cable with links to 13 other islands in the eastern Caribbean extending from the British Virgin Islands to Trinidad; microwave radio relay to island of Saint Martin/Sint Maa (2015)

Broadcast media

1 private TV station; multi-channel cable TV subscription services are available; about 10 radio stations, one of which is government-owned (2007)

Internet country code


Internet users

total: 12,000
percent of population: 76% (July 2015 est.)


National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 2
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 3 (2015)

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

VP-A (2016)


2 (2013)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2013)


total: 175 km
paved: 82 km
unpaved: 93 km (2004)

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Blowing Point, Road Bay


Military - note

defense is the responsibility of the UK

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international


Illicit drugs

transshipment point for South American narcotics destined for the US and Europe