Angola is still rebuilding its country since the end of a 27-year civil war in 2002. Fighting between the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA), led by Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS, and the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA), led by Jonas SAVIMBI, followed independence from Portugal in 1975. Peace seemed imminent in 1992 when Angola held national elections, but fighting picked up again in 1993. Up to 1.5 million lives may have been lost - and 4 million people displaced - during the more than a quarter century of fighting. SAVIMBI's death in 2002 ended UNITA's insurgency and cemented the MPLA's hold on power. President DOS SANTOS pushed through a new constitution in 2010 and elections held in 2012 saw him installed as president. Angola assumed a nonpermanent seat on the UN Security Council for the 2015-16 term.



Southern Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Namibia and Democratic Republic of the Congo

Geographic coordinates

12 30 S, 18 30 E

Map references



total: 1,246,700 sq km
land: 1,246,700 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative

slightly less than twice the size of Texas

Land boundaries

total: 5,369 km
border countries (4): Democratic Republic of the Congo 2,646 km (of which 225 km is the boundary of discontiguous Cabinda Province), Republic of the Congo 231 km, Namibia 1,427 km, Zambia 1,065 km


1,600 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm


semiarid in south and along coast to Luanda; north has cool, dry season (May to October) and hot, rainy season (November to April)


narrow coastal plain rises abruptly to vast interior plateau


mean elevation: 1,112 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Moca 2,620 m

Natural resources

petroleum, diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, copper, feldspar, gold, bauxite, uranium

Land use

agricultural land: 47.3%
arable land 3.8%; permanent crops 0.2%; permanent pasture 43.3%
forest: 46.8%
other: 5.9% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land

860 sq km (2012)

Natural hazards

locally heavy rainfall causes periodic flooding on the plateau

Environment - current issues

overuse of pastures and subsequent soil erosion attributable to population pressures; desertification; deforestation of tropical rain forest, in response to both international demand for tropical timber and to domestic use as fuel, resulting in loss of biodiversity; soil erosion contributing to water pollution and siltation of rivers and dams; inadequate supplies of potable water

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note

the province of Cabinda is an exclave, separated from the rest of the country by the Democratic Republic of the Congo

People and Society

Population growth rate

2.72% (2016 est.)


note: results from Angola's 2014 national census estimate the country's population to be 25.8 million (July 2016 est.)


noun: Angolan(s)
adjective: Angolan

Ethnic groups

Ovimbundu 37%, Kimbundu 25%, Bakongo 13%, mestico (mixed European and native African) 2%, European 1%, other 22%


Portuguese 71.2% (official), Umbundu 23%, Kikongo 8.2%, Kimbundu 7.8%, Chokwe 6.5%, Nhaneca 3.4%, Nganguela 3.1%, Fiote 2.4%, Kwanhama 2.3%, Muhumbi 2.1%, Luvale 1%, other 3.6%
note: most widely spoken languages; shares sum to more than 100% because some respondents gave more than one answer on the census (2014 est.)


Roman Catholic 41.1%, Protestant 38.1%, other 8.6%, none 12.3% (2014 est.)

Demographic profile

More than a decade after the end of Angola’s 27-year civil war, the country still faces a variety of socioeconomic problems, including poverty, high maternal and child mortality, and illiteracy. Despite the country’s rapid post-war economic growth based on oil production, more than 40 percent of Angolans live below the poverty line and unemployment is widespread, especially among the large young-adult population. Only about 70% of the population is literate, and the rate drops to around 60% for women. The youthful population – about 45% are under the age of 15 – is expected to continue growing rapidly with a fertility rate of more 5 children per woman and a low rate of contraceptive use. Fewer than half of women deliver their babies with the assistance of trained health care personnel, which contributes to Angola’s high maternal mortality rate.
Of the estimated 550,000 Angolans who fled their homeland during its civil war, most have returned home since 2002. In 2012, the UN assessed that conditions in Angola had been stable for several years and invoked a cessation of refugee status for Angolans. Following the cessation clause, some of those still in exile returned home voluntarily through UN repatriation programs, and others integrated into host countries. As of August 2014, about 73,000 Angolans were still living in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Zambia, Namibia, the Republic of the Congo, and other countries.

Age structure

0-14 years: 42.72% (male 4,394,206/female 4,223,246)
15-24 years: 20.72% (male 2,127,140/female 2,053,363)
25-54 years: 29.6% (male 3,013,561/female 2,956,547)
55-64 years: 3.97% (male 388,314/female 413,347)
65 years and over: 2.99% (male 278,853/female 323,755) (2016 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 99.9%
youth dependency ratio: 95.2%
elderly dependency ratio: 4.6%
potential support ratio: 21.6% (2015 est.)

Median age

total: 18.2 years
male: 18 years
female: 18.3 years (2016 est.)

Birth rate

38.6 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)

Death rate

11.3 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)

Net migration rate

-0.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)


urban population: 44% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 4.97% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population

LUANDA (capital) 5.506 million; Huambo 1.269 million (2015)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female
total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2016 est.)

Child labor - children ages 5-14

total number: 832,895
percentage: 24% (2001 est.)

Maternal mortality rate

477 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)

Infant mortality rate

total: 76.5 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 80.1 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 72.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 56 years
male: 54.8 years
female: 57.2 years (2016 est.)

Total fertility rate

5.31 children born/woman (2016 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

17.7% (2008/09)

Health expenditures

3.3% of GDP (2014)

Physicians density

0.17 physicians/1,000 population (2009)

Drinking water source

urban: 75.4% of population
rural: 28.2% of population
total: 49% of population
urban: 24.6% of population
rural: 71.8% of population
total: 51% of population (2015 est.)

Sanitation facility access

urban: 88.6% of population
rural: 22.5% of population
total: 51.6% of population
urban: 11.4% of population
rural: 77.5% of population
total: 48.4% of population (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate

2.17% (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS

315,400 (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths

11,900 (2015 est.)

Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, malaria
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

8.5% (2014)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

15.6% (2007)

Education expenditures

3.5% of GDP (2010)


definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 71.1%
male: 82%
female: 60.7% (2015 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 10 years
male: 13 years
female: 8 years (2011)

Mother's mean age at first birth

note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2011 est.)


Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Angola
conventional short form: Angola
local long form: Republica de Angola
local short form: Angola
former: People's Republic of Angola
etymology: name derived by the Portuguese from the title "ngola" held by kings of the Ndongo (Ndongo was a kingdom in what is now northern Angola)

Government type

presidential republic


name: Luanda
geographic coordinates: 8 50 S, 13 13 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions

18 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Bengo, Benguela, Bie, Cabinda, Cunene, Huambo, Huila, Kwando Kubango, Kwanza Norte, Kwanza Sul, Luanda, Lunda Norte, Lunda Sul, Malanje, Moxico, Namibe, Uige, Zaire


11 November 1975 (from Portugal)

National holiday

Independence Day, 11 November (1975)


previous 1975, 1992; latest passed by National Assembly 21 January 2010, adopted 5 February 2010 (2016)

Legal system

civil legal system based on Portuguese civil law; no judicial review of legislation

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt


citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Angola
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years


18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS (since 21 September 1979); Vice President Manuel Domingos VICENTE (since 26 September 2012); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS (since 21 September 1979); Vice President Manuel Domingos VICENTE (since 26 September 2012)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by the National Assembly for a 5-year term (eligible for a second consecutive or discontinuous term); note - according to the 2010 constitution, ballots are cast for parties rather than candidates, and the leader of the winning party becomes president
election results: NA; as leader of the MPLA, Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS elected president following legislative elections on 31 August 2012, inaugurated on 26 September 2012 to serve the first of a possible two terms under the 2010 constitution

Legislative branch

description: unicameral National Assembly or Assembleia Nacional (220 seats; members directly elected in a single national constituency and in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)
elections: last held on 31 August 2012 (next to be held in 2017)
election results: percent of vote by party - MPLA 71.8%, UNITA 18.7%, CASA-CE 6.0%, PRS 1.7%, FNLA 1.1%, other 0.7%; seats by party - MPLA 175, UNITA 32, CASA-CE 8, PRS 3, FNLA 2

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court or Supremo Tribunal de Justica (consists of the court president, vice president, and a minimum of 16 judges); Constitutional Court or Tribunal Constitucional (consists of 11 judges)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the president upon recommendation of the Supreme Judicial Council, an 18-member body chaired by the president; judge tenure NA; Constitutional Court judges - 4 nominated by the president, 4 elected by National Assembly, 2 elected by Supreme National Council, 1 elected by competitive submission of curricula; judges serve single 7-year terms
subordinate courts: provincial and municipal courts

Political parties and leaders

Broad Convergence for the Salvation of Angola Electoral Coalition or CASA-CE [Abel CHIVUKUVUKU]
National Front for the Liberation of Angola or FNLA; note - there are two factions of the party; one is led by Lucas NGONDA; the other is led by Ngola KABANGU
National Union for the Total Independence of Angola or UNITA [Isaias SAMAKUVA] (largest opposition party)
Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola or MPLA [Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS] (ruling party in power since 1975)
Social Renewal Party or PRS [Eduardo KUANGANA]

National symbol(s)

Palanca Negra Gigante (giant black sable antelope); national colors: red, black, yellow

Political pressure groups and leaders

Angolan Revolutionary Movement or ARM
Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda or FLEC [N'zita Henriques TIAGO]
note: FLEC's small-scale armed struggle for the independence of Cabinda Province persists despite the signing of a peace accord with the government in August 2006; several factions of FLEC have broken off over the past 30 years, including the FLEC-PM [Rodrigues MINGAS], which was responsible for a deadly attack on the Togolese soccer team in 2010

International organization participation

ACP, AfDB, AU, CEMAC, CPLP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OAS (observer), OPEC, SADC, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Agostinho Tavares da Silva NETO (since 18 November 2014)
chancery: 2100-2108 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 785-1156
FAX: [1] (202) 822-9049
consulate(s) general: Houston, New York

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Helen Meagher LA LIME (15 May 2014)
embassy: number 32 Rua Houari Boumedienne (in the Miramar area of Luanda), Luanda
mailing address: international mail: Caixa Postal 6468, Luanda; pouch: US Embassy Luanda, US Department of State, 2550 Luanda Place, Washington, DC 20521-2550
telephone: [244] 946440977
FAX: [244] (222) 64-1000

Flag description

two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and black with a centered yellow emblem consisting of a five-pointed star within half a cogwheel crossed by a machete (in the style of a hammer and sickle); red represents liberty, black the African continent, the symbols characterize workers and peasants

National anthem

name: "Angola Avante" (Forward Angola)
lyrics/music: Manuel Rui Alves MONTEIRO/Rui Alberto Vieira Dias MINGAO
note: adopted 1975


Industrial production growth rate

0.9% (2016 est.)

Economy - overview

Angola's economy is overwhelmingly driven by its oil sector. Oil production and its supporting activities contribute about 50% of GDP, more than 70% of government revenue, and more than 90% of the country's exports. Diamonds contribute an additional 5% to

Increased oil production supported growth averaging more than 17% per year from 2004 to 2008. A postwar reconstruction boom and resettlement of displaced persons has led to high rates of growth in construction and agriculture as well. Some of the country'

The global recession that started in 2008 stalled economic growth. In particular, lower prices for oil and diamonds during the global recession slowed GDP growth to 2.4% in 2009, and many construction projects stopped because Luanda accrued $9 billion in

Falling oil prices and slower than expected growth in non-oil GDP have reduced growth prospects. Angola has responded by reducing government subsidies and by proposing import quotas and a more restrictive licensing regime. Corruption, especially in the ex

GDP (purchasing power parity)

$187.3 billion (2016 est.)
$187.3 billion (2015 est.)
$181.8 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)

$91.94 billion (2015 est.)

GDP - real growth rate

0% (2016 est.)
3% (2015 est.)
4.8% (2014 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP)

$6,800 (2016 est.)
$7,000 (2015 est.)
$7,000 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars

Gross national saving

4.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
0.6% of GDP (2015 est.)
12.4% of GDP (2014 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 72.5%
government consumption: 18.1%
investment in fixed capital: 10.3%
investment in inventories: 0%
exports of goods and services: 35.3%
imports of goods and services: -36.2% (2016 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 10.2%
industry: 61.4%
services: 28.4% (2011 est.)

Agriculture - products

bananas, sugarcane, coffee, sisal, corn, cotton, cassava (manioc, tapioca), tobacco, vegetables, plantains; livestock; forest products; fish


petroleum; diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, feldspar, bauxite, uranium, and gold; cement; basic metal products; fish processing; food processing, brewing, tobacco products, sugar; textiles; ship repair

Labor force

10.85 million (2016 est.)

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 85%
industry and services: 15% (2003 est.)

Unemployment rate


Population below poverty line

40.5% (2006 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 0.6%
highest 10%: 44.7% (2000)


revenues: $27.27 billion
expenditures: $33.5 billion (2016 est.)

Taxes and other revenues

29.7% of GDP (2016 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

-6.8% of GDP (2016 est.)

Public debt

57.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
57.3% of GDP (2015 est.)

Fiscal year

calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

26.9% (2016 est.)
10.3% (2015 est.)

Central bank discount rate

9% (31 December 2014)
25% (31 December 2010)

Commercial bank prime lending rate

30% (31 December 2016 est.)
16.88% (31 December 2015 est.)

Stock of narrow money

$24.57 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$25.27 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

Stock of broad money

$38.85 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$42.15 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

Stock of domestic credit

$12.52 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$17.18 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

Current account balance

-$4.929 billion (2016 est.)
-$8.748 billion (2015 est.)


$30.04 billion (2016 est.)
$35.55 billion (2015 est.)

Exports - commodities

crude oil, diamonds, refined petroleum products, coffee, sisal, fish and fish products, timber, cotton

Exports - partners

China 43.8%, India 9.6%, US 7.7%, Spain 6.2%, South Africa 4.8%, France 4.4% (2015)


$19.67 billion (2016 est.)
$21.15 billion (2015 est.)

Imports - commodities

machinery and electrical equipment, vehicles and spare parts; medicines, food, textiles, military goods

Imports - partners

China 22.1%, Portugal 13.8%, South Korea 11%, US 6.9%, South Africa 5%, UK 4.1%, France 4% (2015)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$20.43 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$24.08 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

Debt - external

$37.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$33.83 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home

$13.01 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
$10.57 billion (31 December 2014 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad

$22.8 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$22.2 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

Exchange rates

kwanza (AOA) per US dollar -
172 (2016 est.)
120.061 (2015 est.)
120.061 (2014 est.)
98.303 (2013 est.)
95.47 (2012 est.)


Electricity - access

population without electricity: 15,000,000
electrification - total population: 30%
electrification - urban areas: 46%
electrification - rural areas: 18% (2013)

Electricity - production

9.2 billion kWh (2014 est.)

Electricity - consumption

8.1 billion kWh (2014 est.)

Electricity - exports

0 kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - imports

0 kWh (2013 est.)

Electricity - installed generating capacity

1.7 million kW (2014 est.)

Electricity - from fossil fuels

50.3% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from nuclear fuels

0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants

49.7% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from other renewable sources

0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Crude oil - production

1.842 million bbl/day (2015 est.)

Crude oil - exports

1.745 million bbl/day (2013 est.)

Crude oil - imports

0 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Crude oil - proved reserves

8.4 billion bbl (1 January 2016 es)

Refined petroleum products - production

46,050 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - consumption

132,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)

Refined petroleum products - exports

33,600 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - imports

97,760 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Natural gas - production

731 million cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - consumption

231 million cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - exports

500 million cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - imports

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves

308 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy

33 million Mt (2013 est.)


Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 284,925
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 1 (July 2015 est.)

Telephones - mobile cellular

total: 13.885 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 71 (July 2015 est.)

Telephone system

general assessment: limited system; state-owned telecom had monopoly for fixed lines until 2005; demand outstripped capacity, prices were high, and services poor; Telecom Namibia, through an Angolan company, became the first private licensed operator in Angola's fixed-line t
domestic: only about one fixed line per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity about 71 telephones per 100 persons in 2015
international: country code - 244; landing point for the SAT-3/WASC fiber-optic submarine cable that provides connectivity to Europe and Asia; satellite earth stations - 29 (2015)

Broadcast media

state controls all broadcast media with nationwide reach; state-owned Televisao Popular de Angola (TPA) provides terrestrial TV service on 2 channels; a third TPA channel is available via cable and satellite; TV subscription services are available; state- (2008)

Internet country code


Internet users

total: 2.434 million
percent of population: 12.4% (July 2015 est.)


National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 10
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 55
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 1,244,491
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 46.043 million mt-km (2015)

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

D2 (2016)


176 (2013)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 31
over 3,047 m: 7
2,438 to 3,047 m: 8
1,524 to 2,437 m: 12
914 to 1,523 m: 4 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 145
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 31
914 to 1,523 m: 66
under 914 m: 43 (2013)


1 (2013)


gas 352 km; liquid petroleum gas 85 km; oil 1,065 km; oil/gas/water 5 km (2013)


total: 2,852 km
narrow gauge: 2,729 km 1.067-m gauge; 123 km 0.600-m gauge (2014)


total: 51,429 km
paved: 5,349 km
unpaved: 46,080 km (2001)


1,300 km (2011)

Merchant marine

total: 7
by type: cargo 1, chemical tanker 1, passenger/cargo 2, petroleum tanker 2, roll on/roll off 1
foreign-owned: 1 (Spain 1)
registered in other countries: 17 (Bahamas 6, Curacao 2, Cyprus 1, Liberia 1, Malta 7) (2010)

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Cabinda, Lobito, Luanda, Namibe
LNG terminal(s) (export): Angola Soyo


Military branches

Angolan Armed Forces (Forcas Armadas Angolanas, FAA): Army, Navy (Marinha de Guerra Angola, MGA), Angolan National Air Force (Forca Aerea Nacional Angolana, FANA; under operational control of the Army) (2012)

Military service age and obligation

20-45 years of age for compulsory male and 18-45 years for voluntary male military service (registration at age 18 is mandatory); 20-45 years of age for voluntary female service; 2-year conscript service obligation; Angolan citizenship required; the Navy (MGA) is entirely staffed with volunteers (2013)

Military expenditures

3.63% of GDP (2012)
3.5% of GDP (2011)
3.63% of GDP (2010)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

Democratic Republic of Congo accuses Angola of shifting monuments

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 12,944 (Democratic Republic of the Congo) (2015)

Illicit drugs

used as a transshipment point for cocaine destined for Western Europe and other African states, particularly South Africa