After more than a century of rule by France, Algerians fought through much of the 1950s to achieve independence in 1962. Algeria's primary political party, the National Liberation Front (FLN), was established in 1954 as part of the struggle for independence and has since largely dominated politics. The Government of Algeria in 1988 instituted a multi-party system in response to public unrest, but the surprising first round success of the Islamic Salvation Front (FIS) in the December 1991 balloting led the Algerian army to intervene and postpone the second round of elections to prevent what the secular elite feared would be an extremist-led government from assuming power. The army began a crackdown on the FIS that spurred FIS supporters to begin attacking government targets. Fighting escalated into an insurgency, which saw intense violence from 1992-98, resulting in over 100,000 deaths - many attributed to indiscriminate massacres of villagers by extremists. The government gained the upper hand by the late-1990s, and FIS's armed wing, the Islamic Salvation Army, disbanded in January 2000.
Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA, with the backing of the military, won the presidency in 1999 in an election widely viewed as fraudulent and won subsequent elections in 2004, 2009, and 2014. The government in 2011 introduced some political reforms in response to the Arab Spring, including lifting the 19-year-old state of emergency restrictions and increasing women's quotas for elected assemblies, while also increasing subsidies to the populace. Since 2014, Algeria’s reliance on hydrocarbon revenues to fund the government and finance the large subsidies for the population has fallen under stress because of declining oil prices.



Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Morocco and Tunisia

Geographic coordinates

28 00 N, 3 00 E

Map references



total: 2,381,741 sq km
land: 2,381,741 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative

slightly less than 3.5 times the size of Texas

Land boundaries

total: 6,734 km
border countries (7): Libya 989 km, Mali 1,359 km, Mauritania 460 km, Morocco 1,900 km, Niger 951 km, Tunisia 1,034 km, Western Sahara 41 km


998 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive fishing zone: 32-52 nm


arid to semiarid; mild, wet winters with hot, dry summers along coast; drier with cold winters and hot summers on high plateau; sirocco is a hot, dust/sand-laden wind especially common in summer


mostly high plateau and desert; some mountains; narrow, discontinuous coastal plain


mean elevation: 800 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Chott Melrhir -40 m
highest point: Tahat 3,003 m

Natural resources

petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, uranium, lead, zinc

Land use

agricultural land: 17.3%
arable land 3.1%; permanent crops 0.4%; permanent pasture 13.8%
forest: 0.6%
other: 82% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land

5,700 sq km (2012)

Natural hazards

mountainous areas subject to severe earthquakes; mudslides and floods in rainy season

Environment - current issues

soil erosion from overgrazing and other poor farming practices; desertification; dumping of raw sewage, petroleum refining wastes, and other industrial effluents is leading to the pollution of rivers and coastal waters; Mediterranean Sea, in particular, becoming polluted from oil wastes, soil erosion, and fertilizer runoff; inadequate supplies of potable water

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note

largest country in Africa

People and Society


40,263,711 (July 2016 est.)


noun: Algerian(s)
adjective: Algerian

Ethnic groups

Arab-Berber 99%, European less than 1%
note: although almost all Algerians are Berber in origin (not Arab), only a minority identify themselves as Berber, about 15% of the total population; these people live mostly in the mountainous region of Kabylie east of Algiers; the Berbers are also Muslim but identify with their Berber rather than Arab cultural heritage; Berbers have long agitated, sometimes violently, for autonomy; the government is unlikely to grant autonomy but has offered to begin sponsoring teaching Berber language in schools


Arabic (official), French (lingua franca), Berber or Tamazight (official); dialects include Kabyle Berber (Taqbaylit), Shawiya Berber (Tacawit), Mzab Berber, Tuareg Berber (Tamahaq)


Muslim (official; predominantly Sunni) 99%, other (includes Christian and Jewish) <1% (2012 est.)

Demographic profile

For the first two-thirds of the 20th century, Algeria’s high fertility rate caused its population to grow rapidly. However, about a decade after independence from France in 1962 the total fertility rate fell dramatically from 7 children per woman in the 1970s to about 2.4 in 2000, slowing Algeria’s population growth rate by the late 1980s. The lower fertility rate was mainly the result of women’s rising age at first marriage (virtually all Algerian children being born in wedlock) and to a lesser extent the wider use of contraceptives. Later marriages and a preference for smaller families are attributed to increases in women’s education and participation in the labor market; higher unemployment; and a shortage of housing forcing multiple generations to live together. The average woman’s age at first marriage increased from about 19 in the mid-1950s to 24 in the mid-1970s to 30.5 in the late 1990s.
Thousands of Algerian peasants – mainly Berber men from the Kabylia region – faced with land dispossession and economic hardship under French rule migrated temporarily to France to work in manufacturing and mining during the first half of the 20th century. This movement accelerated during World War I, when Algerians filled in for French factory workers or served as soldiers. In the years following independence, low-skilled Algerian workers and Algerians who had supported the French (harkis) emigrated en masse to France. Tighter French immigration rules and Algiers’ decision to cease managing labor migration to France in the 1970s limited legal emigration largely to family reunification.
Not until Algeria’s civil war in the 1990s did the country again experience substantial outmigration. Many Algerians legally entered Tunisia without visas claiming to be tourists and then stayed as workers. Other Algerians headed to Europe seeking asylum, although France imposed restrictions. Sub-Saharan African migrants came to Algeria after its civil war to work in agriculture and mining. In the 2000s, a wave of educated Algerians went abroad seeking skilled jobs in a wider range of destinations, increasing their presence in North America and Spain. At the same time, legal foreign workers principally from China and Egypt came to work in Algeria’s construction and oil sectors. Illegal migrants from sub-Saharan Africa, particularly Malians, Nigeriens, and Gambians, continue to come to Algeria in search of work or to use it as a stepping stone to Libya and Europe.
Since 1975, Algeria also has been the main recipient of Sahrawi refugees from the ongoing conflict in Western Sahara. An estimated 90,000 Sahrawis live in five refugee camps in southwestern Algeria near Tindouf.

Age structure

0-14 years: 29.06% (male 5,991,164/female 5,709,616)
15-24 years: 15.95% (male 3,287,448/female 3,136,624)
25-54 years: 42.88% (male 8,737,944/female 8,526,137)
55-64 years: 6.61% (male 1,349,291/female 1,312,339)
65 years and over: 5.5% (male 1,027,126/female 1,186,022) (2016 est.)

Dependency ratios

total dependency ratio: 52.6%
youth dependency ratio: 43.6%
elderly dependency ratio: 9.1%
potential support ratio: 11% (2015 est.)

Median age

total: 27.8 years
male: 27.5 years
female: 28.1 years (2016 est.)

Population growth rate

1.77% (2016 est.)

Birth rate

23 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)

Death rate

4.3 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)

Net migration rate

-0.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)

Population distribution

the vast majority of the populace is found in the extreme northern part of the country along the Mediterranean Coast


urban population: 70.7% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 2.77% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population

ALGIERS (capital) 2.594 million; Oran 858,000 (2015)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female
total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2016 est.)

Child labor - children ages 5-14

total number: 304,358
percentage: 5% (2006 est.)

Maternal mortality rate

140 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)

Infant mortality rate

total: 20.3 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 21.9 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 18.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)

Health expenditures

7.2% of GDP (2014)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 76.8 years
male: 75.5 years
female: 78.2 years (2016 est.)

Total fertility rate

2.74 children born/woman (2016 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate

61.4% (2006)

Physicians density

1.21 physicians/1,000 population (2007)

Drinking water source

urban: 84.3% of population
rural: 81.8% of population
total: 83.6% of population
urban: 15.7% of population
rural: 18.2% of population
total: 16.4% of population (2015 est.)

Sanitation facility access

urban: 89.8% of population
rural: 82.2% of population
total: 87.6% of population
urban: 10.2% of population
rural: 17.8% of population
total: 12.4% of population (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate

0.04% (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS

8,800 (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths

100 (2015 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

23.6% (2014)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

3% (2013)

Education expenditures

4.3% of GDP (2008)


definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 80.2%
male: 87.2%
female: 73.1% (2015 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)

total: 14 years
male: 14 years
female: 15 years (2011)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24

total: 25.3%
male: 22.1%
female: 41.4% (2014 est.)


Country name

conventional long form: People's Democratic Republic of Algeria
conventional short form: Algeria
local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al Jaza'iriyah ad Dimuqratiyah ash Sha'biyah
local short form: Al Jaza'ir
etymology: the country name derives from the capital city of Algiers

Government type

presidential republic


name: Algiers
geographic coordinates: 36 45 N, 3 03 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions

48 provinces (wilayas, singular - wilaya); Adrar, Ain Defla, Ain Temouchent, Alger, Annaba, Batna, Bechar, Bejaia, Biskra, Blida, Bordj Bou Arreridj, Bouira, Boumerdes, Chlef, Constantine, Djelfa, El Bayadh, El Oued, El Tarf, Ghardaia, Guelma, Illizi, Jijel, Khenchela, Laghouat, Mascara, Medea, Mila, Mostaganem, M'Sila, Naama, Oran, Ouargla, Oum el Bouaghi, Relizane, Saida, Setif, Sidi Bel Abbes, Skikda, Souk Ahras, Tamanrasset, Tebessa, Tiaret, Tindouf, Tipaza, Tissemsilt, Tizi Ouzou, Tlemcen


5 July 1962 (from France)

National holiday

Revolution Day, 1 November (1954)


several previous; latest approved by referendum 23 February 1989; amended several times, last in 2016 (2016)

Legal system

mixed legal system of French civil law and Islamic law; judicial review of legislative acts in ad hoc Constitutional Council composed of various public officials including several Supreme Court justices

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt


citizenship by birth: no
citizenship by descent only: the mother must be a citizen of Algeria
dual citizenship recognized: no
residency requirement for naturalization: 7 years


18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA (since 28 April 1999)
head of government: Prime Minister Abdelmalek SELLAL (since 28 April 2014)
cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in two rounds if needed for a 5-year term (2-term limit reinstated by constitutional amendment in February 2016); election last held on 17 April 2014 (next to be held in April 2019); prime minister nominated by the president from the majority party in Parliament
election results: Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA reelected president for a fourth term; percent of vote - Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA (FLN) 81.5%, Ali BENFLIS (FLN) 12.2%, Abdelaziz BELAID (Future Front) 3.4%, other 2.9%

Legislative branch

description: bicameral Parliament consists of the Council of the Nation (upper house with 144 seats; one-third of members appointed by the president, two-thirds indirectly elected by simple majority vote by an electoral college composed of local council members; members serve 6-year terms with one-half of the membership renewed every 3 years) and the National People's Assembly (lower house with 462 seats including 8 seats for Algerians living abroad); members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms)
elections: Council of the Nation - last held on 29 December 2015 (next to be held in December 2018); National People's Assembly - last held on 10 May 2012 (next to be held on 17 May 2017)
election results: Council of the Nation - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; National People's Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - FLN 208, RND 68, AAV 49, FFS 27, PT 24, FNA 9, El Adala 8, MPA 7, PFJ 5, FC 4, PNSD 4, other 31, independent 18

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court or Cour Supreme (consists of 150 judges organized into 4 divisions: civil and commercial; social security and labor; criminal; and administrative; Constitutional Council (consists of 12 members including the court chairman and deputy chairman); note - Algeria's judicial system does not include sharia courts
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the High Council of Magistracy, an administrative body presided over by the president of the republic, and includes the republic vice-president and several members; judges appointed for life; Constitutional Council members - 4 appointed by the president of the republic, 2 each by the 2 houses of Parliament, 2 by the Supreme Court, and 2 by the Council of State; Council president and members appointed for single 6-year terms with half the membership renewed every 3 years
subordinate courts: appellate or wilaya courts; first instance or daira tribunals

Political parties and leaders

Algerian National Front or FNA [Moussa TOUATI]
Algerian Popular Movement or MPA [Amara BENYOUNES]
Algerian Rally or RA [Ali ZAGHDOUD]
Algeria's Hope Rally or TAJ [Amar GHOUL]
Dignity or El Karama [Mohamed BENHAMOU]
Ennour El Djazairi Party (Algerian Radiance Party) or PED [Badreddine BELBAZ]
Front for Change or FC [Abdelmadjid MENASRA]
Front for Justice and Development or El Adala [Abdallah DJABALLAH]
Future Front or El Mostakbel [Abdelaziz BELAID]
Green Algeria Alliance or AAV (includes Islah, Ennahda Movement, and MSP)
Islamic Renaissance Movement or Ennahda Movement [Mohamed DOUIBI]
Movement for National Reform or Islah [Djilali GHOUINI]
Movement of Society for Peace or MSP [Abderrazak MOKRI]
National Democratic Rally (Rassemblement National Democratique) or RND [Ahmed OUYAHIA]
National Front for Social Justice or FNJS [Khaled BOUNEDJEMA]
National Liberation Front or FLN [Djamel OULD ABBES]
National Party for Solidarity and Development or PNSD
National Reform Movement or Islah [Djahid YOUNSI]
National Republican Alliance
New Dawn Party or PFJ
New Generation or Jil Jadid [Soufiane DJILALI]
Oath of 1954 or Ahd 54 [Ali Fawzi REBAINE]
Party of Justice and Liberty [Mohammed SAID]
Rally for Culture and Democracy or RCD [Mohcine BELABBAS]
Socialist Forces Front or FFS [Mustafa BOUCHACHI]
Union of Democratic and Social Forces or UFDS [Noureddine BAHBOUH]
Vanguard of Freedoms [Ali BENFLIS]
Youth Party or PJ [Hamana BOUCHARMA]
Workers Party or PT [Louisa HANOUNE]
note: a law banning political parties based on religion was enacted in March 1997

Political pressure groups and leaders

Algerian League for the Defense of Human Rights or LADDH [Noureddine BENISSAD]
SOS Disparus [Nacera DUTOUR]
Youth Action Rally or RAJ

International organization participation


Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Madjid BOUGUERRA (since 23 February 2015)
chancery: 2118 Kalorama Road NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 265-2800
FAX: [1] (202) 986-5906
consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Joan A. POLASCHIK (since 22 September 2014)
embassy: 05 Chemin Cheikh Bachir, El Ibrahimi, El-Biar 16030 Algiers
mailing address: B. P. 408, Alger-Gare, 16030 Algiers
telephone: [213] (0) 770-08-2000
FAX: [213] (0) 770-08-2064

National symbol(s)

star and crescent, fennec fox; national colors: green, white, red

Flag description

two equal vertical bands of green (hoist side) and white; a red, five-pointed star within a red crescent centered over the two-color boundary; the colors represent Islam (green), purity and peace (white), and liberty (red); the crescent and star are also Islamic symbols, but the crescent is more closed than those of other Muslim countries because Algerians believe the long crescent horns bring happiness

National anthem

name: "Kassaman" (We Pledge)
lyrics/music: Mufdi ZAKARIAH/Mohamed FAWZI
note: adopted 1962; ZAKARIAH wrote "Kassaman" as a poem while imprisoned in Algiers by French colonial forces


Economy - overview

Algeria's economy remains dominated by the state, a legacy of the country's socialist postindependence development model. In recent years the Algerian Government has halted the privatization of state-owned industries and imposed restrictions on imports an

Hydrocarbons have long been the backbone of the economy, accounting for roughly 30% of GDP, 60% of budget revenues, and over 95% of export earnings. Algeria has the 10th-largest reserves of natural gas in the world and is the sixth-largest gas exporter. I

Algiers has strengthened protectionist measures since 2015 to limit its import bill and encourage domestic production of non-oil and gas industries. Since 2015, the government has imposed additional regulatory requirements on access to foreign exchange fo

With declining revenues caused by falling oil prices, the government has been under pressure to reduce spending. A wave of economic protests in February and March 2011 prompted Algiers to offer more than $23 billion in public grants and retroactive salary

Long-term economic challenges include diversifying the economy away from its reliance on hydrocarbon exports, bolstering the private sector, attracting foreign investment, and providing adequate jobs for younger Algerians.

GDP (purchasing power parity)

$609.4 billion (2016 est.)
$588.4 billion (2015 est.)
$566.3 billion (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)

$168.3 billion (2015 est.)

GDP - real growth rate

3.6% (2016 est.)
3.9% (2015 est.)
3.8% (2014 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP)

$15,000 (2016 est.)
$14,700 (2015 est.)
$14,500 (2014 est.)
note: data are in 2016 dollars

Gross national saving

32.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
34.9% of GDP (2015 est.)
43.4% of GDP (2014 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 41.5%
government consumption: 22.1%
investment in fixed capital: 42.1%
investment in inventories: 6.6%
exports of goods and services: 25.1%
imports of goods and services: -37.4% (2016 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 13.1%
industry: 38.7%
services: 48.2% (2016 est.)

Agriculture - products

wheat, barley, oats, grapes, olives, citrus, fruits; sheep, cattle


petroleum, natural gas, light industries, mining, electrical, petrochemical, food processing

Industrial production growth rate

0.5% (2016 est.)

Labor force

11.78 million (2016 est.)

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 30.9%
industry: 30.9%
services: 58.4% (2011 est.)

Unemployment rate

12.4% (2016 est.)
11.2% (2015 est.)

Population below poverty line

23% (2006 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 2.8%
highest 10%: 26.8% (1995)

Distribution of family income - Gini index

35.3 (1995)


revenues: $42.69 billion
expenditures: $66.45 billion (2016 est.)

Taxes and other revenues

25.4% of GDP (2016 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

-14.1% of GDP (2016 est.)

Public debt

16.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
9.9% of GDP (2015 est.)
note: data cover central government debt, as well as debt issued by subnational entities and intra-governmental debt

Fiscal year

calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

6.7% (2016 est.)
4.8% (2015 est.)

Central bank discount rate

4% (31 December 2010)
4% (31 December 2009)

Commercial bank prime lending rate

8% (31 December 2016 est.)
8% (31 December 2015 est.)

Stock of narrow money

$91.41 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$86.43 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

Stock of broad money

$133.6 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$127.9 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

Stock of domestic credit

$100.1 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$61.78 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares


Current account balance

-$25.34 billion (2016 est.)
-$27.45 billion (2015 est.)


$26.91 billion (2016 est.)
$36 billion (2015 est.)

Exports - commodities

petroleum, natural gas, and petroleum products 97% (2009 est.)

Exports - partners

Spain 18.8%, France 11.2%, US 8.8%, Italy 8.7%, UK 7.1%, Brazil 5.2%, Tunisia 4.9%, Germany 4.5% (2015)


$44.6 billion (2016 est.)
$50.7 billion (2015 est.)

Imports - commodities

capital goods, foodstuffs, consumer goods

Imports - partners

China 15.6%, France 14.4%, Italy 9.4%, Spain 7.4%, Germany 5.6%, Russia 4.1% (2015)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$115 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$144.9 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

Debt - external

$5.934 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$5.143 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home

$25.54 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$25.89 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad

$2.025 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
$1.95 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

Exchange rates

Algerian dinars (DZD) per US dollar -
110.1 (2016 est.)
100.691 (2015 est.)
100.691 (2014 est.)
80.579 (2013 est.)
77.54 (2012 est.)


Electricity - access

population without electricity: 400,000
electrification - total population: 99%
electrification - urban areas: 100%
electrification - rural areas: 97% (2016)

Electricity - production

60 billion kWh (2014 est.)

Electricity - consumption

49 billion kWh (2014 est.)

Electricity - exports

900 million kWh (2014 est.)

Electricity - imports

700 million kWh (2014 est.)

Electricity - installed generating capacity

16 million kW (2014 est.)

Electricity - from fossil fuels

98% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from nuclear fuels

0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants

1.8% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Electricity - from other renewable sources

0.2% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

Crude oil - production

1.37 million bbl/day (2015 est.)

Crude oil - exports

1.146 million bbl/day (2013 est.)

Crude oil - imports

2,920 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Crude oil - proved reserves

12 billion bbl (1 January 2016 es)

Refined petroleum products - production

505,900 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - consumption

430,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)

Refined petroleum products - exports

435,400 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - imports

108,800 bbl/day (2013 est.)

Natural gas - production

83.29 billion cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - consumption

37.5 billion cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - exports

40.8 billion cu m (2014 est.)

Natural gas - imports

0 cu m (2013 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves

4.504 trillion cu m (1 January 2016 es)

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy

128 million Mt (2013 est.)


Telephones - fixed lines

total subscriptions: 3,267,592
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 8 (July 2015 est.)

Telephones - mobile cellular

total: 45.928 million
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 116 (July 2015 est.)

Telephone system

general assessment: privatization of Algeria's telecommunications sector began in 2000; three mobile cellular licenses have been issued and, in 2005, a consortium led by Egypt's Orascom Telecom won a 15-year license to build and operate a fixed-line network in Algeria; the l
domestic: a limited network of fixed lines with a teledensity of less than 10 telephones per 100 persons has been offset by the rapid increase in mobile-cellular subscribership; in 2015, mobile-cellular teledensity was roughly 116 telephones per 100 persons
international: country code - 213; landing point for the SEA-ME-WE-4 fiber-optic submarine cable system that provides links to Europe, the Middle East, and Asia; microwave radio relay to Italy, France, Spain, Morocco, and Tunisia; coaxial cable to Morocco and Tunisia; p (2015)

Broadcast media

state-run Radio-Television Algerienne operates the broadcast media and carries programming in Arabic, Berber dialects, and French; use of satellite dishes is widespread, providing easy access to European and Arab satellite stations; state-run radio operat (2007)

Internet country code


Internet users

total: 15.105 million
percent of population: 38.2% (July 2015 est.)


National air transport system

number of registered air carriers: 4
inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 74
annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 5,910,835
annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 24,723,377 mt-km (2015)

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix

7T (2016)


157 (2016)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 64
over 3,047 m: 12
2,438 to 3,047 m: 29
1,524 to 2,437 m: 17
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 1 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 93
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 18
914 to 1,523 m: 39
under 914 m: 34 (2013)


3 (2013)


condensate 2,600 km; gas 16,415 km; liquid petroleum gas 3,447 km; oil 7,036 km; refined products 144 km (2013)


total: 3,973 km
standard gauge: 2,888 km 1.432-m gauge (283 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 1,085 km 1.055-m gauge (2014)


total: 113,655 km
paved: 87,605 km (includes 645 km of expressways)
unpaved: 26,050 km (2010)

Merchant marine

total: 38
by type: bulk carrier 6, cargo 8, chemical tanker 3, liquefied gas 11, passenger/cargo 3, petroleum tanker 4, roll on/roll off 3
foreign-owned: 15 (UK, 15) (2010)

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Algiers, Annaba, Arzew, Bejaia, Djendjene, Jijel, Mostaganem, Oran, Skikda
LNG terminal(s) (export): Arzew, Bethioua, Skikda


Military branches

People's National Army (Armee Nationale Populaire, ANP), Land Forces (Forces Terrestres, FT), Navy of the Republic of Algeria (Marine de la Republique Algerienne, MRA), Air Force (Al-Quwwat al-Jawwiya al-Jaza'eriya, QJJ), Territorial Air Defense Force (2009)

Military service age and obligation

17 is the legal minimum age for voluntary military service; 19-30 years of age for compulsory service; conscript service obligation is 18 months (6 months basic training, 12 months civil projects) (2012)

Military expenditures

4.48% of GDP (2012)
4.36% of GDP (2011)
4.48% of GDP (2010)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

Algeria and many other states reject Moroccan administration of Western Sahara; the Polisario Front, exiled in Algeria, represents the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic; Algeria's border with Morocco remains an irritant to bilateral relations, each nation accusing the other of harboring militants and arms smuggling; dormant disputes include Libyan claims of about 32,000 sq km still reflected on its maps of southeastern Algeria and the National Liberation Front's (FLN) assertions of a claim to Chirac Pastures in southeastern Morocco

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 90,000 (Western Saharan Sahrawi, mostly living in Algerian-sponsored camps in the southwestern Algerian town of Tindouf) (2015)
IDPs: undetermined (civil war during 1990s) (2013)

Trafficking in persons

current situation: Algeria is a transit and, to a lesser extent, a destination and source country for women subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking and, to a lesser extent, men subjected to forced labor; criminal networks, sometimes extending to sub-Saharan Africa and to Europe, are involved in human smuggling and trafficking in Algeria; sub-Saharan adults enter Algeria voluntarily but illegally, often with the aid of smugglers, for onward travel to Europe, but some of the women are forced into prostitution, domestic service, and begging; some sub-Saharan men, mostly from Mali, are forced into domestic servitude; some Algerian women and children are also forced into prostitution domestically
tier rating: Tier 3 – Algeria does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking and is not making significant efforts to do so: some officials denied the existence of human trafficking, hindering law enforcement efforts; the government reported its first conviction under its anti-trafficking law; one potential trafficking case was investigated in 2014, but no suspected offenders were arrested; no progress was made in identifying victims among vulnerable groups or referring them to NGO-run protection service, which left trafficking victims subject to arrest and detention; no anti-trafficking public awareness or educational campaigns were conducted (2015)